ZX587ZX81 TS1888/1588 PC8388 152868 SPECTEUR

SINC-LINK IS A PUBLICATION OF THE TORONTO TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS A

CLUB AND IS ISSUED 6 TIMES À TORONTO TINKX-SINCLAIRE YEAR. COPIES OF THE NEWSLETTER USERS CLUB ARE $1.50 EACH FOR NON-MEMBERS.

CLUB MEMBERS RECEIVE FREE COPIES NEM LOOK ISSUE

AS PART OF THE $20.00 ANNUAL MEMDEDOUTD PEE. contents

page 2 Editorial NEWSLETTERS ARE EXCHANGED, FREE OF CHARGE, WITH OTHER page 3,4 TTSUC History

TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS GROUPS.

page 5,6 Bob's Notebook ALL MATERIAL IS IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN AND CAN BE REPRINTED. page 7,8 QL Info PLEASE CREDIT THIS PUBLICATION AND THE AUTHOR IF YOU COPY page 9,10 2068 Power Supply MATERIAL. page 11 Modemming SEND CORRESFONDANCE TO: page 12 Larken & Large Printer

Attention: SINC-LINK EDITOR TORONTO TIMEX-SINCLAIR USERS page 13 Larken Disk Library CLUB, 14 RICHOME COURT. SCARBOROUGH. ONTARIO, page 14 The Last Page CANADA МІК 2Y1

EXECUTIVE OFFICERS:

PRESIDENT: JEFF TAYLOR ( 244-8583 )

TREASURER: BILL LAWSON ( 444-8772 )

SECRETARY: GEORGE CHAMBERS ( 751-7559 )

ACTIVITIES: RENE BRUNEAU ( 531-9749 )

TAPE LIBRARIAN ZXB1: H s b

TAPE LIBRARIAN 2068: RENATO ZANNESE ( 635-6536 )

PAPER LIBRARIAN: GREG ROBINS ( 920-7747 )

NEWSLETTER: JEFF TAYLOR ( 244-8583 )

LIAISON OFFICER: GEORGE CHAMBERS, i4 RICHOME COURT,

( Qut-of-town members ) SCARBOROUGH, ONTARIO, МІК 2Y1

( 416-751-7559 )

TORONTO TIMEX=SINCLAIR USERS CLUB

14 RICHOME COURT, SCARBOROUGH, ONTARIO. CANADA М1К 2Y1

Editorial

Welcome to 1989! We're still here after all these vears (6+). Not bad for a bunch of computer enthusiasts whose machines have net been supported by the manufacturer for about 5 of those years. In fact. the club is experiencing a modest resurgence. With new ZX81 members, new out-of-town members, QL members doing club demos, new hardware projects. growing tape and disc libraries and a healthy bank balance, I'd say we're doing pretty good. We'll certainly be around for a while.

in the spirit of the New Year. i'm presenting an updated newsletter cover. I'm entirely to blame for this. Last issue I promised a cover with artwork and asked for submissions or at least suggestions... well there were so many (none!) that in order to keep my promise I decided to pick what I thought was the best offering - mine. If you don't like it write and tell me why or send me an alternative. I knocked the Toronto skyline together in about half an hour using Art Studio. Can you do better? C'mon, I know you closet artists are out there. I can hear the brush strokes. By the way, yes I am aware that I missed à line in the Sinc-Link blurb on the cover of the last issue. Did anyone else notice?

Jn to business: à club executive meeting was held in the middle of December. À question was raised on whether we are serving the members as well as we might, our feelings were that we were doing at least an adequate job. Since we may have a Slightly biased view of ourselves. what is your opinion? We would like to know if we can serve you better. (Really).

Remember your modem? That little pc board (cased or not) with the red L.E.D. and the phone jack? A number of users in town have discovered (or rediscovered) that their modems are great tools for conversing with each other, up and downloading text and RLE files and for use as printer interfaces. We'll be covering their uses in the next few issues.

News tidbit: For those of you who subscribe to Syncware News and are wondering if that publication has died, the answer is no! Just prior to the December club meeting, I phoned S.N.'s publisher, Mr. Jeff Moore, and he assured me that S.N. vol.5 no.6 would be in the mail to all subscribers before Dec. 25/88. Citing a number of problems for the delays, Mr. Moore also explained that after the December issue, Syncware News will be merged with his other publication, Quantum Levels. Current subscribers will get this new hybrid magazine until their subscriptions expire or are renewed. Let's hope he can maintain the high quality we've grown accustomed to in Syncware News and wish him luck.

I'm always on the lookout for new material for the newsletter and I'm happy to report that we are getting some articles from people other than mainstays George, Bob, Rene and Renato. These new writers help relieve some of the strain I put on these four to produce new work all the time. I hate being a pain but if these guys slow down or you readers don't send in more articles the consequence will be that you'll have to read more of my brilliant prose! You'd better get writing. Anything TS-computer related will get published.

Remember, send all correspondence to the address on the cover. Do not use the old Post Office box number. 'Nuff said.

“ат

SINC-LINK

TORONTO TIMEX SINCLAIR USERS GROUP A history by G. Chambers

їп October 1982 а short advert appeared in

the classified section of the Toronto Star, asking persons who might be interested in forming an interest group for a computer called the 2Х81 to contact Pete. It gave š phone number.

The advertisement was placed by Pete Harvey. About a dozen persons responded, and this was the genesis of what was shortly to be called the Toronto Timex Sinclair Users Club.

I was one of those responding to the advert. The very first meeting was held in a Sar, and for some reason I was unable to attend. At this meeting it was agreed that there was sufficient interest to warrant further meetings. The next meeting was held at Pete Harvey's place. Initially we may have met every week, though it may have been once every two weeks. Once or twice the meetings were at my place.

however the group was growing to such an extent that a new location was urgently needed. It devolved on Pete to make new arrangements, In tne oeginning tnese Locations were varied. I recall that we met on š couple oi occasions in а sideroom off a bar at zglinton and Yonge streets (Pete thought this was ideal!); once in a spare room in an apartment basement; ina small room іп а rublic library; іп a large hall in the same library.

The group continued to grow, to such an extent that a more permanent location was felt necessary. Pete arranged for a meeting place in the North York Community Hall. vieetings were scheduled on а regular basis on the first and 3rd Wednesday of each month. Rent was $15 a meeting, if my memory serves me correct.

At one of the earlier meetings it was agreed that the annual membership dues should be $20. Pete Harvey became the first president and treasurer, while I offered to be club Secretary. The club name was agreed on.

At about the same time there was a concensus that the club should publish a newsletter, and that it should be a bi-monthly issue. This was dore, witn Stan Piotrowski 5ecoming the first editor. There were tnree issues the first year. Members would pick tneircopy up &t tne meeting.

We decided to place a further three-day advert in the Toronto Star newspaper. This brought out more persons interested in the computer. The local Timex dealer, Gladstone Electronics, was given information about our club, to hand out to customers. Small slips of paper containing information about our club were put into Timex books on néwsstands and libraries. These produced additional members.

A ‘letter to the editor’ telling of the club brought further responses, including a number of out of town inquiries,

Those were heady days. The club had grown to about 80 members оу the end of the first year, and our meeting place was becoming crowded. Attendance was about 45, and the room had seating for only about 40. Latecomers had to stand. Many members brought their ZX8i's and ather equipment to show off and talk about. The early ones found a table to put

their equipment on; latecomers had to make do as best they could.

One member, ian Singer, had а sort of dealersnip of Timex equipment, and used to 2111 orders for software and hardware.

in the beginning there was no structure to the meetings. iembeərs brougnt tneir 2Х81 | equipment, and showed it off and discussed it. There would be a general discussion, moderated

Harvey. us iy аталады recall one member, Jonn Castillos. John was quite a character. He had & heavy Spanish accent, and was by nature an excitable person. When he got onto a topic he would get so carried away that it was almost impossible to make out his conversation! John was our tape librarian. He operated the : library on the basis that you would give him a blank tape with a request for & program, and ne would bring a copy to the next meeting. If you contributed a program, then you could get a second program from the library.

Then suddenly John was gone, much to our consternation. One of our members got a letter from him some time later, saying that he had had to leave rather suddenly. Still later, a friend of his wrote from South America, asking that we forward any of John's mail to the friend. . : |

There was not much mail to forward. Bills from department stores, and from banks!! And catalogues from antique ооок dealers, mostly on Egyptology. John was an avid Egyptologist, and one of his original programs which is to be found in the club 2X81 library is an ` elaborate filing system relating to Egyptian mummies! | | _

I forgot to mention something. John had a Р.О. Box, and he had offered it as a club address. After he left, we simply continued using this P.O. box, paying the annual dues on it as they came due.

Meetings continued to be held twice 4 month through 1983. However, probably due to Pete Harvey's easygoing nature, the meetings had not progressed much beyond being bunch of guys chewing the fat about computers". I used tnis phrase іп an open letter to the club membersnip in October '83. In tnis letter I suggested the club could and should be offering the membership much more, and requested anyone who shared these sentiments and was willing to serve in ап active capacity to contact me.

The upsnot was that an interim executive was elected, with a six month mandate to get the club operation onto a sound footing.

Greg Lloyd became president; John Roach, Treasurer; Martin Mauk, librarian; Ian Robertson and Brian Hammond, Activity Directors; Harold Goodwin, meeting chairman; Chris Hart, Out-of-town members; myself as Secretary. Stan Piotrowski continued as newsletter editor. | |

Pete Harvey's interest had drifted towards the Commodore, and he dropped out of the club.

The new executive put new life into the club, Demonstrations were arranged for each meeting, the club finances were re-ordered, а set of club bylaws were drawn up and accepted by the membership. Application forms and membersnip cards were prepared. The tape library was reorganised and a paper library was created. We started a newsletter exchange with ether Timex clubs. in June OI 708 the interim executive was confirmed for a further year.

SINC-L INK

we had been meeting in the Community hall for about 18 months wnen we had to move into new premises. It was a cause for macabre nilarity that our new premises were a former funeral nome!! It was a distinct improvement over our previous location, what with deep carpetted floors, and a tasteful decor. Never mind that our storage cupboard was in the embalming room, or that the elevator we used to bring our club equipment from the basement up to the second floor, was designed to move coffins. We felt comfortably at home!!

Many members had converted to the TS2068 computer by then, and our meetings used to alternate between 2X81 and 2068 demonstrations А 752068 library was established.

Meetings continued to be twice a month, with attendance probably about 25 per meeting. But problems were brewing. The sole Toronto dealer was closing up shop. No one seemed to be selling Timex computers any more, and member- ship started to decline. Where the club had reached a high of 130 members, it was now falling off rapidly as existing members either looked to other computers, or simply lest interest. Curiously enough, while the local membership was declining quite rapidly, the number of members from out of town was actually increasing.

This was cause for concern, since servicing these members took considerable time and effort. in addition to mailing the newsletter, it involved sending programs tapes from our library, and supporting them in other ways. Nevertheless, we nave continued to do this, expanding recently to support for Larken owners. OOT members now outnumber the in-town members by about 2 to 1.

In 1987 we had to vacate our premises once more. The funeral home was actually a temporary location of the Community Centre,

til their new building was built. The move to the new Community Centre building involved a hefty rent increase; one that we felt unable to afford. A search for a new meeting place was urgent. Our president found a suitable meeting place in a high scnool classroom, This was the Forest Hill C.I., where we continue to meet.

A number of members were into QL computers, апа some GL demonstrations were held. However the QL section has never been a very active group. A far more vigorous section has been the Larken owners. More precisely, the TS2068 Larken version.

For some reason our club has always had a very enthusiastic Larken following. Probably a dozen members started with the first vintage Larken system. Since then they have upgraded to the current version, and numbers have grown to where there are more Larken systems in the ciub than all other disk systems combined, At the risk of bragging, l would say that we are tne premier Larken club in Nortn America.

In October 1987, wnen nominations for & new executive were due, tnere was a familiar ring. No one could be found who was willing to Stand for office. It was proposed that in light of this, further meetings be suspended, commencing in January. A letter outlining this proposal was sent out to all local members,

AL the following meeting sufficient members came forward to serve as club officers that meetings were able to continue.

This brings us up to the present, at the

start of 1989. Club membership stands at about 66 members. Our meeting attendance averages about 15. We have purchased a Larken system for the club and this has stimulated considerable interest at meetings. Our 2X81 section is showing signs of increased activity. Only the QL section seems moribund.

жж dE RH EEE

(let's see an

improvement QLers!

Magazine Clippings

by G. Chambers Being a long time Timex computer enthusiast and natural packsrat, I have collected а great many magazine clippings on the Spectrum and 15

computers. These cover the hardware and software aspects of both the 2X81, Spectrum, and TS2068 computers. Below is a partial

listing of Spectrum programming articles. Most of them are applicable to the 752068, If any of the articles look interesting, club members may request copies for the cost of copying (6 cents/page) plus postage. Or drop a line for further information on them.

1. Can you Prevent the Program Being Listed 2. Screen Displays can be Moving Experience 5. Journey to tne Centre of the ROM. ü, Ghosts in Machine Interrupt Routine 5, Headers Examined И 5, Please Explain Arrays to us wWwoodenheads 7, Adding Commands to Spectrum BASIC. 8. At Your Command...Adds 14 BASIC commands 9, GO-FASTER ВА5ІС...А M/C Utility. 10. DATA Statement Builder. 11. Compactor 12. Infinite Scroll Р 13. Speakeasy..a М/С synthesizer ій, Speech Synthesis 15. Oscilloscope ss 16. Teiephone...British phone 17. 3-D Letters...and also Mirror characters 18, Contour 19. Picture Slide 20. Nignt Moves 21, Searching at Routine Speed. 22. Curve Fit . 23. Machine Code Colour Graphics . trum Trace. 2 11. 280 and 6502 Vectors..2 parts 26. Secrets of Spectrum Streams & Channels 27. Spectrum Streams 28. Toolkit . 29. Multi-programming 20: Light Sereen Designer...Parts 1 & 2 31. Mastering m/c on your Spectrum (6 Parts). 32, PIKCHACHANJA for your Spectrum. 33. Spectrum ROM Routines | 34. In Different Directions...m/c scrolling 35. Gamesmanship...Games programming tips 36. Waves..a program to make you seasick 37. RENUMBER...An article and M/C listing. 38, Function Line Displayed in 3-D Graphics. 39. Thin Characters.. M/C routine о. Spectrum BEEP Command 41. Tape Copiers ug, M/C Indexing 43, ROM Routines . ці, Wise Moves...Moving around on the screen 45, What Goes on Behind the SCREENS 46, DATA Handling | 47. Searching Techniques 48, Elementary Graphics

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ED)

BOB'S NOTEBOOK

Let's get back to some programming for a change. I have two interesting utilities from my notebook.

When you are faced with using the MERGE command to join one of your utilities with another program, the first problem is whether there will be a clash of line numbers. Keeping your utilities (the ones written in BASIC) above line 9000 or so is helpful but there is no guarantee that some programs have not cone into this area, What to do? First, if the utility can be written in machine code or compiled via Timachine, that is an obvious way out. But if BASIC is the only way, then here is the solution.

Renumber the utility starting at line 10000, Right, that's what I said: ten thousand! Then there will be no danger of a line number conflict of interest. Type in the program below and SAVE it,

1000 REM Renumber to 10000 plus

1005 REM Bob Mitchell 1988

1010 REM Do not leave out lines 1000 and

1005. Change them is OK

1015 CLS : PRINT "This utility allows

renumbering to lines higher than the usual 9569,"''"The current start line is set at 10000. Line numbers increment by five."

1020 PRINT '"To set a different start line use «GO TO 10040» now. Now, MERGE the program to be renumbered."

1025 PRINT '"DELETE the lines of this utility by using «DELETE 10000,10095>."

1030 PRINT '"Change all GO TOs etc manually calculating them carefully in respect to the new start line."''"When ready, use « RANDOMIZE USR 32000» to renumber,"

1035 STOP

1040 INPUT "Start line # ? ",line

1045 LET line-line-5

1050 RANDOMIZE line

1055 LET hi=PEEK 23671: LET lo=PEEK 23670: POKE 32004,lo1 POKE 3 2005,hi

1060 STOP

1065 RESTORE 1070: FOR i=32000 TO 32030: READ а: POKE i,a: NEXT i: GO TO 1015

1070 DATA 42,83,92,17,11,29,237,75

1075 DATA 75,92,167,237,66,200,9,6

1080 DATA 5,19,16,252,115,35,115,35

1085 DATA 78,35,70,9,35,24,231,0 ; RANDOMIZE USR 100: SAVE "re#10+.B2" LINE

1095 STOP

“-1---1------“-------------------------.

Try this program оп itself. GO TO 1065 then RANDOMIZE USR 32000 and LIST, All the line numbers now start with a colon «:» which is tne next character after «9» in the TS2068 character set. Thus it represents «10», If you choose 11000 as the start line, the first "digit" in the line numbers would be a semicolon (;) and so on,

Now MERGE this program with your favourite short utility. Change all your GO TO and GO SUB numbers to the line numbers they will represent after the renumbering is done, noting that the line numbers increment by five (5) only. I have deliberately cnosen a renumber routine that does NOT renumber GO TOs and GO SUBs because those that do will not handle line numbers over 9999.

Once the renumbering is done, it is impossible to edit the lines, hence the need

to change these GO TOs ete manually.

DELETE my utility as indicated in line 1025 above. Then, use «RANDOMIZE USR 32000» now to renumber your utility and SAVE it.

As the title infers, this utility will sort Tasword lists of up to 240 lines or 15360 bytes. Each record in the list must be only one line long, but with 64 characters per line there is room for a lot of material in any list (eg, birthdays and anniversaries, long play records, telephone numbers, things to do, diaries, program descriptions on disk or tape).

You may sort all or part of a list, or just the list in a longer Tasword file. When your list is saved in the usual Tasword manner, ensure you have noted the file text length (variable «a» gives this), list's start and end line numbers and the column number to sort on. The program prompts will walk you through the operation and when finished, the program along with its newly sorted list will have been saved ready for loading into Tasword. Respond to all «scroll ?> prompts with a «y^.

The program is set up for compiling via Timachine and there is a short loader/manager program to go with it. Type in the two listings, compile the main program and save it in the usual way and save the loader. The utility is then ready for use.

Try it on your favourite Tasword list, bearing in mind the limitations explained above. It should only take a few short minutes to get the job done.

One thing more: the display of the lines in the list uses Tasword's companion piece, Taswide, to present it in a 64 cpl format. If you do not have Taswide, change line 230 to read:

CLS: FOR i=n ТО e: PRINT d$(i)a NEXT i and remove «RANDOMIZE USR 100: LOAD "taswi.Cx"CODE» from line 8 of listing 2.

Listing 1. Tasort

40 REM !USR 28000

50 REM ! LPRINT

60 REM ! LIST

70 REM !LEN h$«-64

80 REM !INT *oa,o0b,s5f,a,b,0,0,8,Dn,1,j,t

90 REM ! OPEN #

100 CLS

110 LET oa=SGN PI: LET ob=2: LET візбін LET а=47615: DIM d$(240 ,64)

120 INPUT “length of text? «-15360"'bi IF b>15360 THEN GO TO 120 130 LET с=ІМТ (b/sf) 150 INPUT "start line? "5 152 INPUT "end line? (0-1ast)";e 153 IF e=NOT PI THEN LET e=c 154 LET el-a*((e-1)*sf) 157 CLS : PRINT "loading text from"'"line ізі" to line "je"... +" 160 LET n=s 170 FOR i-a*((s-1)*sf) TO е1 STEP sf 180 FOR j=NOT PI TO 63 190 LET d$(s,j*oa)-CHR$ PEEK (i+ j) 200 NEXT j 210 LET s=st+oa: IF s»e THEN GO TO 230 220 NEXT is STOP 230 CLS 1 RANDOMIZE USR 64300:FOR ізп TO ei PRINT CHR$3;d$(i): NEXT i

240 BEEP oa,10: INPUT "l=sort O=save? "iss! IF NOT sa THEN GO TO 440

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сл

; On The Fastrack 255 INPUT "sort on which col.? (1-63) ";t

260 CLS а PRINT "sorting on col. ";t: GO SUB Veen TOUGH IVE Been PROMSTED. Td Dos THAT 300: GO TO 230 IT'S STILL TROUBLING To FIND OUT EVER BOTHER, 290 REM shell-faulk sort AY PID do RENG DONE GH YOU AND ART

300 LET sn=e

310 LET sn=IN? (sn/ob)

320 IF sn«oa THEN CLS í RETURN

330 IF sn/ob-INT (sn/ob) THEN LET sn-sn*oa 340 FOR i=n TO e-sn

350 LET mm=i

360 IP dg(mm,t TO )«-d$à(mm*tsn,t TO ) THEN GO

370 LET h$=d$(mm)

380 LET do(mm)=d$(mmt+sn)

390 LET d$(mm*sn)-h$

400 LET mm=mm-sn

410 IF mm>0 THEN GO TO 360

420 NEXT i

430 GO TO 310 |

440 CLS í PRINT "storing sorted file for SAVE,.."1: LET sen: FOR isa*((s-oa)*sr) TO el STEF sf

450 FOR j=NOT PI TO 63

460 POKE (i*j),CODE d$(s,j*oa)

470 NEXT j

480 LET s=stoa: IF s>e THEN GO TO 492

490 NEXT 1

492 STOP

495 KEM ! CLOSE #

550 CLEAR : RANDOMIZE USR 100: SAVE "tasort.Bp" LINE 100

Listing 2. The loader

5 CLS í PRINT INVERSE 1;"TASWORD SORT"; INVERSE 0;" by Bob Mitchell."''"This utility will sort Tasword lists of up to 240 lines (15360 bytes)."

6 PRINT '"Have the following parameters ready from SAVED listi"''"1, text length"'"2. start line number"'"3, end line number if not last"'"lh. column # to sort on (1-63)."

2 PRINT '"Install disk containing list to be sorted; then, press a key.": PAUSE O

8 RANDOMIZE USR 100: LOAD "taswi.Cx"CODE i RANDOMIZE USR 100:

LOAD "tasort.Cc"CODE 28000

10 INPUT " TASWORD SORT "'"list name? max 6 "; LINE n$: RAND OMIZE USR 100: LOAD n$j*".CT" CODE 47615

20 ON ERR GO TO 25: RANDOMIZE USR 28000: CO TO 30

25 ON ERR RESET: POKE 23607,60: GO TO 55

30 LET b-PEEK 30078+256*PEEK 30079: REM see note 1.

40 INPUT "list name? max 6 "; LINE n$: RANDOMIZE USR 100: SAVE n$*".CT"CODE 47615,b

50 CLS і PRINT "Sorted file has been saved and is ready for loading into Tasword"

55 INPUT "1emore O=quit ";m

56 IF m THEN GO TO 5

57 IF NOT m THEN STOP 60 CLEAR : RANDOMIZE USR 100: SAVE "tasort.Bb" LINE 5

š š

NOTE 1, Line 30, This gets the value of <b> in the compiled program, The PEEK addresses may change depending on your compilation list of variables. NOTE 2. The listings above have been entered into Tasword using the Sequential File routine in the Larken Version 3 LKDOS

EPROM. This was covered in my article in the Sep-Oet issue of Sinc-Link page 10,

Bob Mitchell Willowdale Ont 881115

SINC-LINK

SL SL GL GL GL INFO GL е AL GL GL by Bill Lawson

SUR EDITORIAL STAFF HAVE BEEGQN ASKING FOR PARTICIPATION FROM THE &Lers IN THE CLUB. ANY SUBMISSIONS I HAVE MADE ARE FROM MATERIAL FOUND WHILE REVIEWING NEWS LETTERS OF OTHER CLUBS. FOUND THIS ITEM WRITTEN BY JOHN TANNER. I HOPE YOU WILL FIND IT INTERESTING AND THAT IT WILL ENCOURAGE YOU 70 SEND IN YOUR

QUESTIONS AND TIPS SO THAT WE САМ LEARN WHO OUT THERE CAN HELP THE REST OF US BACK HERE.

FROM EXCHANGES WITH VARIOUS CORRESPONENTS AND OUR OWN LIBRARY PROGRAMS I SEE QUITE A LOT OF OTHER PEOPLE’S CODE AND ALTHIUGH IT IS EARLY IN THE LEARNING PROCESS FOR superBASIC, ON WHICH AT BEST WE HAVE HAD ONLY A LITTLE MORE THAN A YEARS PRACTICE, I THINK IT MAY BE INSTRUCTIVE TO HIGHLIGHT SOME OF THE MISCONCEPTIONS EVIDENCED IN THE CODE I HAVE SEEN.

IN MOST INSTANCES IT IS NOT THAT THE CODE WILL NOT FUNCTION BUT THAT IT FAILS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE STRUCTURE OF superBASIC. THE OTHER FACTOR WHICH NEVER FAILS TO SURPRISE ME IS THAT NO MATTER HOW POORLY WRITTEN A PROGRAM MAY BE THERE IS QUITE LIKELY TO BE A USEFUL FEATURE OR TECHNIQUE THAT I WAS NOT AWARE. SO 1 AM SURE THAT WE ALL HAVE A LOT TO LEARN.

MOST OF THE MISCONCEPTIONS COME FROM COPYING LESS FRIENDLY 'BASICS' e.g.

a) 100 AS-INKEYS:IF АФ-"" THEN GO TO 100 В) 200 IF A$-'Y" GR AS="Y" THEN .... C) 300 FOR Іс! TO А: МАМЕ І) =ТЕМРЄ (1): МЕХТ I D) 400 FOR Ісі TO A: IF I=B THEN .... 410 NEXT I Е) 500 PRINT " TITLE OF PAGE " F) 600 PRINT "ANY KEY TO CONTINUE": DUMMYS=INKEYS(-1) 5) 700 INPUT "A FOR ANOTHER Ө TO QUIT *;ANS 710 IF АМФ-"А" OR ANS="A" THEN RUN 720 IF ANS="@" OR ANS="@" THEN STOP 730 GO TO 700 H) 800 NUMBER-LIN COST:NUMFORM NUMBER: PRINT NUMS

THE OPTIMUM superBASIC VERSIONS, МОТ ALWAYS ADEGUATELTDOCUMENTED IN THE MANUAL, ARE, I SUGGEST:-

A) 100 AS=INKEYS(-1)

B) 200 IF A$-'Y': ....

C) 300 FOR I=1TO A: NAMES(1T)=TEMPS(T)

D) 400 FOR I=iTO A:IF I=B: ....

E) 500 PRINT TO 25;'TITLE OF PAGE.’

F) 600 PRINT 'ANY KEY TO CONTINUE':PAUSE

G) 700 PRINT FOR ANOTHER Ө TO QUIT’ : ACCS=* AQ’ 710 REPEAT KEY: ANS-INKEYS$(-120:A-ANS INSTR ACCS:IF A:EXIT KEY 720 IF A=1:RUN:ELSE :LRUN DEVS&’ BOOT’

Н) 800 NUMFORM(LIN_COST): PRINT NUM®

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“HE BENEFIT OF THE superBASIC VERSION IS, I THINK, SELF EVIDENT.

ITEM C) AND D) SHOW A MISUNDERSTANDING OF THE SHORT FORM OF THE 'FOR' LOOP. WHEN ANY STATEMENT FOLLOWS ON THE SAME LINE AS THE 'FOR' STATEMENT THE LINE WILL BE OPERATED UNTIL THE LOOP COUNTER HAS REACHED ITS LIMIT BEFORE OPERATING ANY CODE CN A FOLLOWING LINE. THE 'NEXT' STATEMENT IS THEREFORE REDUNDANT. IT APPEARS THAT HAVING INITIATED A LOOP USING PARTICULAR VARIABLE COUNTER IT IS POSSOBLE TO INSERT ANY NUMBER OF ‘NEXT’ i°S OR 'END FOR’ i’S WITHOUT GENERATING AN ERROR BUT THEY SERVE NO PURPOSE WHEN THE LOOP HAS BEEN COMPLETED. WHEN USING THE LONG FORM OF THE ‘FOR’ LOOP THE "ЕМІ FOR’ FORMS SHOULD ALWAYS BE USED TO DENOTE THE END OF A LOOP. ’NEST’ SHOULD ONLY BBE USED IF THE COUNTER IS CONDITIONALLY INCREMENTED IN THE LOOP. THE USE OF 'THEN: iS ALWAYS UNNECESSARY BUT WITH SOME ІТ IS A CASE OF “Пір HABITS DIE HARD? SND SOME CHOOSE TO KEEP IT FOR ASTHETIC REASONS. PERSONALLY, FAVORING ‘COMPACT ODE’, I OMIT EVERY REDUNDANT FEATURE INCLUDING SPACES FREQUENTLY. I ALSO USE SINGLE QUOTES AS THEY ARE INTERCHANGEABLE WITH DOUBLE ‘EXCEPT WHEN YOU WISH TO USE SINGLE SUOTES IN A STRING) AND IT IS QUICKER 72 TYPE, NEEDING NO SHIFT.

ITEM 3) I HAVE USED TO REINFORCE MY RECOMMENDATION THAT IT IS BAD PRACTICE IN VIRTUALLY ALL CASES TO THROW THE USER BACK INTO THE SYSTEM. EVERY АТТЕММРТ SHOULD BE MADE TO STAY IN PROGRAM MODE SO THAT THE UNINITIATED ARE NEVER LEFT TO HIS/HER OWN DEULICES. IT ALSO SHOWS A VALUABLE SHORT FORM OF THE ‘REPEAT’ STRUCTURE. REMEMBER THAT ANY CODE FOLLOWING A 'REPEAT' STATEMENT ON THE SAME LINE WILL CAUSE IT TO BE TREATED AS A SHORT FORM, EVEN À 'REMark', AND THERE MUST THEREFORE БЕ A 'FUNCTIONAL EXIT ' STATEMENT IF THE PROGRAM IS TO PROGRESS FURTHER. NOTE ALSO THAT THE 'INSTR' COMPARISON TRAPS UPPER AND LOWER CASE FOR A GIVEN CHARCTER DUE TO THE TYPE OF COMPARISON IT USES (MANUAL 12/84 CONCEPTS n52). THIS CAN BE A DISADVANTAGE AT TIMES SO IT IS SOMETIMES NECESSARY ТӨ CHOOSE VALID KEYS CAREFULLY OR MAKE A 'CODE' CHECK INSTEAD.

ITEM h) DEMONSTRATES THAT А PARAMETER TO ВЕ PASSED TO A 'PROCEDURE', IN THIS CASE NUMBER FORMATTING SAY, CAN BE EXPRESSED AS THE ACTUAL CURRENT VARIABLE VALUE, THERE IS NO BENIFIT IN ASSIGNING IT TO THE NAME USED IN THE 'PROCEDURE' DEFINITION, AND PROVIDED IT IS EXPRESSED IN BRACKETS iN THE CALL STATEMENT ITS VALUE WILL NOT CHANGE DUE TO ANY OPERATION IN THE PROCEDURE.

THERE SEEMS TO BE A SHORT FORM OF THE DEFine FUNCtion.

IF THE 'CODE' FOLLOWS ON THE SAME LINE IT DOES NOT REQUIRE AN "END DEFine THUS: -

1000 DEFine FUNCtion SGN(a):IF a O:RETurn -1:ELSE :RETurn a g

I HOPE THE ABOVE ON A DIFFERENT TOPIC; I NOTICE A NUMBER OF ITEMS IN -RUANTA SUGGESTING UNDOCUMENTED METHODS OF CAUSING SUILL TO SEND CODES TO THE PRINTER BY USING А 'TRANSLATE' TO PRODUCE THE ‘ESC’ CODE OR USING CHARACTERS WITH A CODE HIGHER THAN 127. THESE METHODS HAVE THEIIR MERITS AND ACHIEVE WHAT THE WRITERS WISH, BUT IT SHOULD NOT BE OVERLOOKED THAT THEY ARE CONTRARY TD THE PHILOSOPHY ON WHICH QUILL IS BASED. THE PENALTY IS THAT TEXT PREPARED IN THIS MANNER IS МО LONGER ‘PORTABLE’, i.e. IT CANNOT BE PASSED ON CARTRIDGE OR DISK TO OTHER QUILL USERS WITHOUT THE RISK OF GETTING A GARBLED PRINTOUT DUE TO THE RECIPIENT USING A DIFFERENT PRINTER AND/OR HAVING HIS INSTALL FILE DIFERENTLY CONFIGURED. SO DONT GET CARRIED AWAY WIITH YOUR ENTHUSIASM FOR MAKING YOUR PRINTER DOING A JIG.

SINC-LINK

who nave not *Qraduated*® то a more up-to-date probably have a tangle of peripherais hanging out the back of the 2068. Each of these add-ons draws power from the Internal power suppiu. There is а real danger af overloading it with rather nasty results. Bill Jones of UPDATE magazine tells me that his voltage regulator had failed a couple of times, taking some RAM chips with it each time. An obvious and easy solution to this problem is to power the expansion board Separately, leaving the 2868’s supply to look after it’s oun innards exclusively.

computer n:

If none of your peripherals needs 12 volts, a ZX-H1 power pack will serve very nicely as а source to feed а 7805 regulator mounted on the expansion board. Cut the +5v supply trace on the board ciose to the ессе connector at the computer end and mount a 7805 іп a convenient iocation along with a jack for the power pack to niug into. Wire it up according to Fig і and your'e іп business. When using this arrangement, it's convenient to plug the computer and power pack into the same switched power bar so that they are both switched on and off together. It’s very easy to forget one or the other when you are messing around.

if your expansion equipment needs +1Zv and -ісу for OP-amps, or whatever, you will have to use a 12v ac or higher transformer to feed 7812 and 7912 regulators as well as the 7805. See Fig 2. In that case, uou may as well mount the new power supply on a separate board with the requlatars on heat sinks and run a cable to connectors on the expansion board.

I mounted а 7805 with 80.1 uF bypass capacitors on my EPROM Burner board so that it is completely seif-pouered and have had а much larger percentage of successful burns since.

About a year ago, I received from George Chambers a reprint from an American newsletter describing the shortcomings of the switching power supply in the 2068. Apparentiy it generates a lot of noise which interferes with tape saving and loading. The author’s solution was to switch in some Zener diodes to decrease the voltage entering the computer to less than 9 or so volts. This lower voltage removed the noise problem but also the colour and sound outputs. I was willing to try it, but had па Zeners lying around so I decided to go whole hog and eliminate the internal supply completely. It takes a lot of guts, but it does improve tape operations considerabiy and retains the colour and sound functions at the same time. It also has enough power to supply ali the peripherals without another separate supply.

SINC-LINK

10

st, you need an iBv ac or higher Z ampere t ck 2735-1915 is suitable), 7815, 7812, and 7

mp rectifier bridge, and some capacitors. See Fig 3.

the regulators on a hefty heat sink and run a 4-conductor

to the modified computer board. To defeat the switching

supply, remove Qi, the large transistor on the left hand

Ri, the large resistor near it, and Ug the 1Zv regulator looks like a transistor at the left end of £40. Sut the

trace from the power switch and the board is ready for th power Source.

ranstormer,

Solder the +i5v wire to the positive end of C24, the +12у

to the positive end of C41, and the +5v and ground wir their respective ands of C40. I brought these uires in thr hole drilled in the bottom half of the computer case right to the RF modulator can. I housed the power supply itseif

(Radio

S05 regulators. а

Mount cable pouer edge, that louer e neu

wire es to ough a next in a

ventilated case with a small muffin fan running at iou speed so

that it is silent. (put a iZüv Christmas tree light bu series with the fan to slow it down). i've been using the supplu now for about a year and it nas given no trouble

this point.

ib in power up to

1f the major surgery approach seems a bit drastic, do consider nne of the less radical options to take some of the strain off

the internal power suppiu.

68 POWER SUPPUES

Eigi: To power -+5 v periphersis on expansion beara

Гы] Г ке m „100. ait

+9 v from рага Te 5 trace tL 44 On 2x pansion 1000 board Regulator Pinovis T Te anp Gud From pack: Біз2: Te power And * 1257 peripherals on expansion boaii

БА

Note: Use separate small heat sink for 7912

Біз 5, То replace switching power зерну 11 2068 жазу

Note: mount all requiaturs on Same large heat sink

SINC-LI

Modemming ` зу: G Nelson Robins

Recently I purchased a 2050 modem . After casing it I then tried my first log-on. I wasn't sure I was ready to log оп to a 322 so i decided to start with logging onto another modem. Calling up & friend (voice only, always do this first).

I found out the hard way what it is like to answer the phone only to hear a high pitch whine on the other end. Not very easy on the ears or the nerves. We discussed settings that we could both agree on to use.

We decided to use the following. Duplex: Half, ConsHex, Word:8, Prty: Even. Once this was set up I then called via the modem using Mterm software. Now our modems were connected and we could communicate using the keyboard. We did this for awhile then he said “Now you're ready for your first log on to a BBS." I was unsure on this for two reasons. Firstly, my computer was not a IBM , Mac, Atari or Commodore. Would I be able to upload or download text files? Secondly there aren't many BBS in Toronto that have sections supporting the Sinclair computers.

Upon logging on with my first board (PHOENIX) all my doubts were proved false. Any problems I had were ironed out with the help of the BBS's sysop who on PHOENIX is Kevin 5anks. I found his board easy to use as well, as the board's menu's straight forward. So a novice like myself could become a expert in a very short time. Next was the big problem downloading, following some articles written on the subject in different newsletiers.

I found sending a BASIC program using Hex works the best . And to send, say, a file using Tasword or MSCRIPT. Using a short program entitled LOADER IV by Kurt Casby. This allows you to load in any text file straight in to buffer ready for transmitting. Note: I found best results when both computers' CON is set for NONE. I was able to experiment a bit. Sucessfully uploading a Tasword as well as a MSCRIPT file to а another computer (my friend's Coco) as well as to another 2066. George Chambers as well as Renato Zannese let me use their computers to upload on. Thanks, I appreciate the help.

I also managed to capture a BBS Listing from The Grand Hotel II BBS to my buffer. Using this same method. Also I learned that it is easy to open the the reciever's buffer simply by pressing Cap Shift 7 then А.

Note: This snould be done at the same time.

That about does my experience in Telecommuncations for this month. As new . things methods or boards are discovered I will be letting you know. I