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"1/ I.,.'


188 2.


Copyright, 1882, by BoTD CRTTiTRiNE.


An apologetic preface is not intended by what is liere written, for it is believed that in this History i>f Wasliington County there are perhaps as few errors and imperfections as any reason- able critic ought to expect in so comprehensive a work. "Whatever defects may appear (and what work of man is free from defects ?), they are certainly not chargeable to a want of effort and care to avoid them ; and those who have been engaged in the preparation of this work only ask the favor that before it be subjected to unfavorable comment it be carefully examined, not in isolated portions, but in its whole scope and character. Far from being unwilling to submit to honest and intelligent criticism, they will be glad to have any substantial inaccuracies pointed out. By such criticism alone can this work be affected ; captious fault-finding, often arising out of unworthy jealousies, cannot prevail with intelligent men.

But it is rather desired here to make a remark or two as to the history of the book now de- livered to those for whom it was written. And in this connection it may be premised that if any one individual, on his own account, could have devoted the necessary time and industry to the preparation of a full and accurate history of the county, covering the ground the writers of this history have endeavored to cover, it is confidently believed that, there being but a local demand for such a work, it would have been vain to hope that it could have been pub- lished and sold so a.s to repay the author for the time, labor, and expenditure involvetl. To those who wished to see something like an approach to a complete history of Washington County, the proposals of the enterprising publishers to publish the work after a plan and method of their own seemed to offer the only opportunity within reach, and hence it wa-s that the writer of these lines, after the approval of good friends, on whose judgment he could rely, was led to aid the enterprise, not only by a contribution to its pages, but, by way of general oversight and direction of the whole. It was soon found, however, that, beyond the chapters contributed, there was but little need of his assistance, for Major Franklin Ellis, of !N"ew York City, the gentleman by whom much the larger part of the work was prepared, brought with him long experience and great skill in historical investigation, an enviable facility of composition, together with laborious industry and carefulness. And he was aided by gentlemen one of whom, Austin X. Hunger- ford, Esq., of Ithaca, N. Y., deserves special mention who also were possessed of special fitness for the gathering from all sorts of sources of the innumerable and disjointed details which have gone to make uj) the history of localities; and, not only that, they have all along received con- stant 'encouragement and valuable suggestions from leading men in the county, too manv in number to acknowledge by name here. It may be unusual, but, as his associates came here as strangers, the writer desires in this place to bear witness to all who may be interested in this


work that in the labor performed by the gentlemen named they have evinced at all times while it progressed the most absolute good faith and painstaking desire for accuracy and completeness.

In explanation of the method adopted, more especially in the preparation of the chapters upon the civil and legal history, the writer would state that the idea of presenting original docu- ments, in full or by quotation, as they lay before him, rather than to paraphrase their contents in his own language, was followed from deliberate choice as the best method of presenting local history. Thus the actors speak for themselves, and the reader is not asked to take upon faith the statements of another as to what is really contained in their communications. True, a sen- tence often might have represented the substantial contents of a letter or paper of some length, but the reader is supposed to desire rather to see and read the letter or paper for himself. This will, no doubt, be appreciated by the thoughtful.

One word as to the matter of the portraits, other illustrations, and biographical sketches not immediately connected with the historical character of the work, a feature, however, with which those entjaged as investigators and writers have had nothing whatever to do, as being outside of their employment. This feature sometimes is made the subject of thoughtless criticism. Let it here be said the work is intended, to some extent, to indicate the present development of the county, side by side with the history of its past. For obvious reasons, then, wait for twenty, thirty, forty years of our future to elapse, when the present and its people shall have become more in- teresting. Then, it is submitted, this very feature of the work in which there are present( d the portraits and biographical sketches of a few of the representative men of each condition oij life, as well as illustrations of their homes and their surroundings, showing the county of tovday, will of itself have become of very great interest and importance. Time, indeed, will place this feature of the work in its proper light.

This history, thus the work of many hands, is now with the reader, a record of our past, for present and future instruction and entertainment. The longer it is possessed perhajjs tlie more it may be prized. Not a i)age has been stereotyped, and only copies enough have been printed to supply the subscribei'S and those who labored upon it; hence it cannot hereafter be found in the market, and year by year it will become a possession more and more valuable to the



WA.SHINUTON, Sept. 20, 1882.



I. Washington County in History Looatiov, Boundaries, and Topookai'iiy The In- dian Occupation

II. The French and English Claims to the Trans - Alleguenv Region George AVashingtox's Visit to the French Forts

IN 1753

III. French Occupation at the Head op the

Ohio Washington's Campaign of 1754 .

IV. Braddock's Expedition in 1755 .

V. Incursions and Ravages during the

French Occupation Capture ok Fort

du quesne and expulsion op the

French— Expeditions under Bouquet

VI. Dunmore's War ....

VII. The Retolution ....

VIII.— The Revolution— ( CoiK/niierf) .

IX. The Civil and Legal History .

X. The Civil and Legal Histor


XI.— The Civil and


XII.— The Civil and

XIII.— The Civil and

tlnued) XIV.— The Civil and

tinucd) XV.— The Civil and

thmed) XVI.— The Civil and tinned) XVII.— The Civil and tinned) .

XVIII.— The Civil and tinned) XIX.— The Civil and tinned) XX. The Whiskey Inschrec XXI.— War of 181 2-15— Texan and Mexican Wars XXII. War of the Rebellion XXIII. War of the Rebellion [Cnntinned) XXIV. War of the Rebellion {^Continued) XXV. War of the Rebellion (Continued) XXVI. War of the Rebellion (Continued) XXVII. War of the Rebellion (Caniinned) XXVIIL— War of the Rebellion— (fo»(/n.(crf) XXIX. War of the Rebellion (Continued)

Legal History

Legal History

Legal History

Legal History

Legal History^

Legal History

Legal History

Legal History

Legal Histoiiy

(Con- ( Con (Con Con- Con- Con- Con- Con (Con Con-


110 138

249 262 306 310 319 322 329 334 342 346 349

XXX. M'au of the Rebellion (6'(/i(((ii(( XXXr. War of the Rebellion (6'on(i'iin XXXII. Geology Mining XXXIII. Internal Improvements XXXIV. Religious History

XXXV. Religious History (Continued) . XXXVI. Educational History . XXXVII. County Buildings Civil List Agricultural Societies Popul.i




302 365 370

.'i'.iS 425 43H






Washington Boiiough


Canonsburg Borough California Borough West Brownsville Boroi gii Allen Township Amwell Township . Buffalo Township.. Canton Township Carroll Township . Cecil Township Chartiers Township Cross Creek Township . Donegal Township . East Bethlehem Township East Finley Township . East Pike Run Township Fallowfi ELD Township . Franklin Township Hanover Township . Hopewell Township Independence Township. Jefferson Township Morris Township . Mount Pleasant Township North Strabane Township Nottingham Township Peters Township Robinson Township . f. Smith Township Somerset Township South Strabane Township Union Township West Bethlehem Township West Finley Township . West Pike Run Township


Alexander, J. W facing 627

Alexander, William J " 578

Allison, John 720

Autographs of Justices of Old Virginia Courts, facing 204

Baker, Enoch " 671

Barnard, Samuel " 978

Barr, John S "944

Bentley, George " 968

Blachly, S. L "848

Caldwell, A. B., Residence of ... . " 504

Court-House, Sheriff's Residence, and Jail . " 467

Craig, Walker "724

Craighead, James " 706

Crumrine, George " 976

Davis, William " 957

Denniston, Samuel " 964

Dickson, James G. ..... . " 614

Duoking-Stool 206

Ewing, John H facing 556

Farrar, John " 929

Frazier, Thomas " 760

Hall, John, Stock-Farm of ... . " 688

Hanna, Mrs. S. R "558

Hawkins, S. B " 948

Hazlett's Bank "528

Hazzard, T. R "598

Henderson, Joseph . . , . . . . . 503

Hopkins, James H facing 562

Hopkins, William "560

Howe, S. B " 635

Jefferson College at C.inonsburg in 1842 .... 445

Lawrence, G. V facing 574

Lee, William "732

Little, .Tames D., Residence of . . . . " 712

i. Draft of Surveys Virginia Settlement, between 192, 193 Map, Outline, Illustrating the Boundary Controversy be- tween Pennsylvania and Virginia . . facing 191 Map showing District of West Augusta and Counties of

Ohio between 182, 183

M'ap showing French Occupation of the Ohio Valley, facing 138 Map of Washington County from 1781 to 1788 " 222

Map, Outline, of Washington County . . between 12, 13

Maxwell, George C, Residence of Maxwell, John .... McConncll, Alexander, Jr. McConnell, Alexander, Sr. McFarland, Samuel . G

facing 646

" 820

between 718, 719

" 718, 719

facing 664


McKennan, W facing 249

McLain, William "762

McMillan's Log Cabin Academy ..... 440

McNary, James S between 714, 715

MeNary, William H " 714, 715

Murray's Block, West Alexander ..... 752

Noble, T. C facing 758

Part of Washington in 1842 .... "496

Patterson, James "727

Paul, Huston "954

Paxton, John G., Residence of ... . " 708

Plan of the town of Washington . . between 476, 477

Pees, Zachariah facing 880

Perrine, David "840

Prehistoric Pipe 956

Presbyterian Church, West Alexander . . facing 749

Pringle, J. S "642

Proudfit, J. L "930

Public School, Monongahela City ... " 595

Ramsey, George ...... " 959

Reed, Parker 822

Richard Yates' Survey ....... 193

Ritchie's Block facing 623

Ritchie, W. H. S " 624

Shirls, Harry, Residence of . . . between 542, 543 Sloan, Rev. James ...... facing 585

Smith, William "940

Soldiers' Monument 552

Southwestern State Normal School . . . facing 462

Speers, S. C "649

Sphar, Henry ....... " 651

Stephens, J. W "936

Stewart, Robert "838

Stocks and Pillory 222

Sw.igler, Jacob facing 950

Swart, Andrew J 672

Townsend, Elijah facing 899

Trinity Hall, from Playground. ... " 459

Trinity Hall Boarding-School .... "458

Trinity Hall, east view " 459

Vance, Samuel "952

Warne, James " 600

Walker, D. S facing 740

Walker, John N "736

Washington College in 1842 446

Wasson, L. J facing 886

Work, George T "816



B a









^Hiiirw^ CO.


c o









Washington County embraces in its annals much tliat is of great historic interest, and in this respect it is surpassed by but few counties in Pennsylvania, though no great national events have ever occurred within its boundaries, and it contains no spot of world-wide fame like Valley Forge, Wyoming, or Gettysburg. In the fierce conflict waged a century and a quarter ago by the two great European rivals, England and France, for dominion over the vast region watered by the head-streams of the Ohio, the contending armies never fought or marched within the present limits of this county, but the routes and the battle-grounds of Washington and Braddock were so near these borders that the crunch and rumble of their artillery-wheels among the crags of the Laurel Hill and the rattle of the fusilades at Fort Necessity and on the storied field of the Monongahela might almost have been heard from the valleys and hills that are now whitened and dotted by the harvests and herds of Washington County farmers. Twenty years afterwards, when a controversy scarcely less fierce sprang up between the States of Pennsylvania and Virginia, in which the Old Dominion insisted on ex- tending her limits eastward to the mountains, while Pennsylvania jieremptorily refused to yield to the claim, and demanded the boundaries granted to Penn by the royal charter, the country west of the Monon- gahela, that was soon after embraced in the county of AVashingtou, became the principal arena of a conflict of jurisdiction that almost reached tlie extremity of open war.

In the Revolutionary struggle this region saw noth-


ing of the movements of the Continental and royal I armies ; but when the news of actual hostilities flew south and west from Lexington Common, kindling in all the colonies the flame of patriotism, it blazed forth as promptly and burned as brightly on these highlands and along these streams as it did on the plain of Bennington or the banks of the Brandywine. 1 2

And while the smoke of battle still enveloped the steep sides of Bunker Hill, armed men from the valley of the Monongahela were already on tlieir way across the mountains to join the provincial forces encircling Boston. Later in the struggle, when Brit- ain had secured the alliance of the Indian tribes of the Northwest, and incited them to frequent and bloody incursions into the settlements along the Ohio border, the brave frontiersmen of this region were mustered in arms again and again to repel invasion and to march against the savages in the wilderne-ss, as a means of protection to their own families and homes. And through all the years of the great struggle, devout ministers of the gospel in Washing- ton County, some of them as eminent in their calling as any in the land, prayed for the success of the pa- triot cause; and when the fighting men went forth, exhorted them to take as much care to fear and serve God, as to pick their flints and kec]) tlieir jiowder dry.

The border hostilities, the Revolution, and the later wars in which the people of Washington County 1 prominent part will be mentioned in ceeding pages, with accounts of the troversy, the Whiskey InsurreatittJfi7 internal provements, including the conatruction of the old National road, the railroads, tile navigation of the Monongahela River, and numberless other historical matters relating to this county, among which none are of greater interest than those pertaining to that religious and educational development and progre.<s which has placed Washington among the very fore- most of the counties of Pennsylvania.

Location, Boundaries, and Topography.— With regard to its location and boundaries, Washington may properly be described as one of the western- most range of counties of Pennsylvania; and the second one, reckoning northward, from the south- west corner of the State. It is joined on the north by Beaver County; on the northeast by Allegheny County; on the east by Allegheny, Westmoreland, and Fayette ; on the south by Greene County, and on the west by the State of West Virginia.

The principal stream of the county is the Monon- gahela River, which takes its rise in West Virginia,




crosses the State line into Pennsylvania at the ex- treme southeast corner of Greene County, and flow- ing thence in a meandering but generally northward course, marks the entire eastern boundary of Greene and Washington Counties against the counties of Fay- ette, Westmoreland, and Allegheny. From the north- eastern limit of Washington County the river flows first in a northeasterly, and afterwards in a north- westerly course through Allegheny County to its confluence with the Allegheny River at Pittsburgh.

Besides the Monongahela, Washington County hasa great number of smaller streams, but among these there are few thatare of sufficient size and importance to de- serve special mention. The North Fork of Ten-Mile Creek takes its rise in the southern part of this county, and flows in a general course a little south of east to its junction with the South Fork, which rises in Greene County. The North Fork marks the boundary line between Washington and Greene for a short distance above the confluence ; and the main stream of Ten- Mile also marks the line between the two counties from the confluence to its mouth, where its waters join those of the Monongahela. North of Ten-Mile Creek, Pike Run, Pigeon Creek, Mingo Creek, and Peters Creek flow into the Monongahela from the eastern part of the county.

The head-streams or forks of Chartiers Creek take their rise in the central and southern parts of the county, and joining their waters form the main stream, which flows in a northeasterly course through the north partof Washington into and through Allegheny County to its junction with the Ohio a short distance below Pittsburgh. Raccoon Creek, King's Creek, and Harmon's Creek rise in the northwest part of the county and flow into the Ohio, the first named in a northerly, and the others in a general westerly course. /"Several forks of Wheeling Creek (which flows into I the Oliio) rise in the southwest corner of Washington ^ County, Hunter's Fork (of Wheeling) marking the boundary for several miles between Washington and Greene. Buffalo Creek and Cross Creek, which have their sources in the western part of Washington County, flow westward across Jhe State line into West Virginia, and through the "Pan Handle" of that State into the Ohio River.

Bordering the Monongahela River are narrow bot- tom lands, seldom, if ever, over one-fourth of a mile in width, and generally much less, through this county. From these bottoms the " river hills" rise abruptly to a height of from two hundred to three hundred feet, and from their summits the country stretches away westward in fine rolling uplands, which in many parts may be called a succession of hills. The creeks— Chartiers, Ten-Mile, Pike, Pigeon, Mingo, Peters, Raccoon, King's, Harmon's, Cross, and Buff'alo— all have nearly the same kind of country bordering their margins, viz., bottom lands (gener- ally very narrow, those of Chartiers' being wider than any other), from which the country rises to the

rolling uplands or hills. In the southwest part of the county there is very little bottom laud along the creeks ; the hills rise more abruptly, and the high lands are much more steep and rugged than elsewhere. In general through the county the hills are tillable to their tops. On them, as in the valleys, and river and creek bottoms, the soil is excellent for the pro- duction of grain and fruits. The county in general is excellent for grazing, and well adapted for all the requirements of agriculture.

A fine description of the natural features of Wash- ington County is given below, being quoted from the " Memoirs of Alexander Campbell," by Robert Rich- ardson. His observations commence at the county- seat, the site of which he describes as " near the sources of several streams, which run in different di- rections, as the Chartiers Creek, which flows towards the north ; Ten-Mile Creek, which pursues an east- ward course and falls into the Monongahela ten miles above Brownsville, whence its name; Buffalo, which directs a swift and clear current to the west-northwest and empties into the Ohio at Wellsburg, about twenty- eight miles distant. The town being thus near the summit-level of the streams, the hills around it are comparatively low, and the country gently undulat- ing. As we follow the descending waters the hilla and upland region, which in reality preserve pretty much the same level, seem gradually to become higher, so that by the time we approach the Ohio and Monon- gahela Rivers their sides, growing more and more precipitous, rise to a height of four or five hundred feet. These steep declivities inclose the fertile val- leys, through which the larger streams wind in grace- ful curves. Into these wide valleys small rivulets pour their limpid waters, issuing at short intervals upon each side from deep ravines formed by steep hill- sides, which closely approach each other, and down which the waters of the springs, with which the up- land is abundantly supplied, fall from rock to rock in miniature cascades. Upon the upland not immedi- ately bordering upon the streams, the country is rolling, having the same general elevation, above which, however, the summit of a hill occasionally lifts itself, as though to afford to lovers of beautiful landscapes most delightful views of a country covered for many miles with rich pasturages, with grazing herds or flocks, fruitful grain-fields or orchards, gar- dens, and farm-houses, while upon the steeper sides of the valleys still remain some of the ancient forest growths of oak and ash, walnut, hickory, and maple. Frequently as the traveler p.isses along the roads upon the upland he .sees suddenly from some divid- ing ridge charming valleys stretching away for miles with their green meadows, rich fields of corn, and sparkling streamlets. At other times, as he advances, he admires with delight in the distance the ever- varying line of the horizon, which on all sides is formed by the summits of remote ridges and eleva- tions, sometimes conical in form, but mostly defined



by various arcs of circles, as regularly drawn as if a pair of compasses had traced the lines upon the sky. Everywhere around him he sees lands abounding in limestone and all the necessary elements of fertility, and producing upon even the highest summits abund- ant crops of all the cereal grains. To enhance the natural resources of this picturesque country its hills conceal immense deposits of bituminous coal, which the descending streams here and there expose, and which, along the sides of the valleys within five miles of Washington and thence to the Ohio Eiver, are conveniently reached by level adits. Such, for nearly two hundred miles west of the Alleghenies, is the general character of this region, especially of that portion of it lying along the Monongahela and Ohio, a region whose healthfulness is not surpassed by that of any country in the world."

The Indian Occupation. When the wilderness region west of the Alleghenies in Pennsylvania was first penetrated by English-speaking white men, they found it partially occupied by roving bands of In- dians, whdse principal permanent settlements were in the vicinity of the confluence of the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers, and above and below that point on the latter stream and the Ohio, but who had, besides these, a few transient villages, or more properly camps, located at different points in the in- terior of the great hunting-ground. These Indian occupants were principally of the Delaware and Shawanese tribes or nations, but there were among them several colonized bands of Iroquois, or " Miu- goes," as they were called. These represented the powerful Six Nations of New York, who were the de facto owners of this trans- Allegheny country, and who sent these bands with their chiefs to live among their vassals, the Delawares, in the same manner and for the same reason that the Romans of old planted colonies and posts at remote points in their tributary provinces.

The Delawares claimed that theirs was the most ancient of all the aboriginal nations, the "Lenni Lenape," or Original People. One of their traditions ran, that, ages before, their ancestors had lived in a far-off' country to the west, beyond the mighty rivers and mountains, at a place where the salt waters con- stantly moved to and fro, and that in the belief that there existed away towards the rising sun a red man's paradise a land of deer and salmon and beaver they had left their far-away home and trav- eled on towards the east and south to find it, but that on their way they were harassed and attacked by enemies and scourged and divided by famine, so that it was not until after long and weary journeyings during hundreds of moons that they came at length to a broad and beautiful river (the Delaware), which forever ebbed and flowed, like the waters from whose shores they had come ; and there, amidst a profusion of game and fish, they rested, and found that Indian elysium of which they had dreamed before they left

their old homes in the land of the setting sun. At the present day there are enthusiaxtic searchere through the realms of aboriginal lore who, accepting the vague narrative as authentic, imagine that the red man came from Asia across the Behring Strait, through which they saw the tide constantly ebb and flow as'nieutioned in the tradition.

Certain it is that at the coming of the first Europeans to America, the Indians of the Lenni Lenape were found living in Eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, in the country drained by the river which the white men called Delaware, a name which they also gave to the nation of red men who inhabited its valley. Many years before that time the Dela- wares had been powerful and the terror of other In- dian tribes, but they were afterwards subdued and humbled by the all-conquering Iroquois or Five Nations,' who reduced them to a state of semi-vaa- salage, and compelled them to acknowledge them- selves women and not warriors. The Delawares, while not daring to deny this fact, endeavored to re- lieve themselves of the disgrace in the eyes of white men by an ingenious yet flimsy account to the eft'ect that as the Indian nations were almost continually at war with each other it had become necessary to have some one of the tribes stand constantly in the atti- tude of peace-makers between them ; that as it was proper that the bravest and most powerful nation should perform this office, it naturally fell to the Delawares, who were exceedingly unwilling to take it, but finally consented to do so for the general good. It was disgraceful for warriors to ask for peace ; this had always been done by the women of the tribes, hence peace-makers were women, and the Delawares in accepting the position as such became, metaphori- cally, women and wearers of the petticoat.- The Delawares said that the Iroquois brought about tl result by cuuuing speeches and artifice, because they dreaded their power and were anxious to render them powerless for harm, the Delawares only discover- ing the trick when it was too late for them to recede. Heckewelder and other Moravian writers gravely re- peated this silly story for truth ; but it is unquestion- able that the Iroquois treated the Delawares with great contein|>t, as a subjugated people and vassals. At a treaty couq^U held in Philadelphia^ in July, 1742, a Six Nation chief named Cannassatego gave a

1 The Iroquois confederation, at fii-st embracing the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondugas, Cayugas, and Senecaa, was then called tlie Five Nations, but afterwards became the Six Nations by the addition of the Tnscaroras, who emigrated to the North upon being expeUed from their earlier faunt- ing-gronuds in the Carolinas.

2 At a time when a strong French force was reported to be on the upper Allegheny on its way to the Ohio, the Delawares living at the head of the latter river sent runners to the Six Nation council at Onondaga, with belts and a message, in which they said, "Uncles, the United Na- tions,— We expect to be killed by the French your father. We desire therefore that you will take off our Petticoat that we in.iy light for our- selves, our wives and children. In the condition we are in, you know we can do nothing." Colon'ml Recorth, vi. 37.

3 Col. Rec, iv. 680.



most withering reproof to some Delawares who were present, in reference to the conduct of their nation in some of their transactions with the whites. He told them they were not warriors but women, and that they deserved to have their ears cut off for their be- havior, and after a long and extremely abusive and contemptuous speech to them in the same strain, in which he told them their people must remove forth- ■■%vith from the Delaware, that they could have no time to consider about it, but must go at once to the Susquehanna, but that considering their behavior he doubted whether they would be allowed to remain there, he handed them a string of wampum and con- tinued, " You are to preserve this string in memory of what your uncles have this day given you in charge. We have now some other business to trans- act with our brethren [the English], therefore depart this council, and consider what has been said to you."

The humiliated Delaware chiefs dared not disobey this peremptory command. They left the council at once, and the last of their people removed immedi- ately afterwards to Wyoming, where they remained only a short time, and then went to the West Branch of the Susquehanna, and from there a large part of them emigrated to the Ohio, whither a considerable number of their tribe had removed many years before, as early as 1725.'

The Shawanese, who were originally inhabitants of the country now embraced in Southern Georgia and Florida, were driven from that country by a hostile tribe,^ and came to Pennsylvania about the year 1697, and removed from the Susquehanna to the head of the Ohio about 1728. An account of their coming

1 Conrad Weiser, the Indian trader, Indian agent, and interpreter, in a speecli to tlie cliiefs of the Six Nations at Albany in Jnly, 1754, said,

Eoad to Oliio is no new Road. It is an old and frequented Road ; the Shawltinifl|yL]>d Delawares removed thither above thirty years ago from mia, e«r since which that Koad has been traveled by our tradere at their iOTfttSbai, and always with safety until within these few years that the Freooh with their usual faithlessness sent armies there." %

2 Zeislierger, the Moravian, says, "The Shawanos, a warlike people, lived in Florida, but having been a^tdued in war by the Moshkos, they left their land and moved to Susquehanna, and from one place to another. Meeting a strong party of Delawares, and' relating to them their fojlorn condition, they took them into their protection as grajidchildrm ; the Shawanos called the Delaware nation their grandfather. They lived thereui)nn in the Forks of the Delaware, and sattled for a time in Wy- oming. When tbey bad increased again they remWed by degrees to the Allegheny." Wlien they came from the Ea»t to the Ohio, they located at and near Montour's Island, below the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongabela. The Delawares came with them to the West, both tribes having been ordered away from tlie valleys of the Delaware and Susquehanna by the Iroquois, whom they were compelled by conquest to recognize as their mastere.

Some writers have said that the Shawanese came from the countr}' west of the Ohio to Pennsylvania, but this is shown to be a mistake by the language of Hetaqnantagetchy,a Six Nation chief.at a council held at Philadelphiii Sept. 10, 1735. He gave an account of the murder of one of the Iroquois Indians by a small band or tribe of the Shawanese who were then located on the Allegheny, and added, " That the tribe of Shawanese complained of is called Shaweygira, and consists of about thirty young men, ten old men, and several women and children ; that it is supposed they are now returned to the place from whence they first came, wJiich is below Carolitiay

and subsequent movements is found in the minutes of a treaty council held at Philadelphia with the chiefs of the Six Nations, Aug. 26, 1732. The Shawanese were then settled on the Ohio, and it was desired to induce them to remove back to the Susque- hanna, to remove them from the influence of the French, who, as it was reported, had made their ap- pearance on the Allegheny. The Governor of Penn- sylvania proposed to the Six Nations to use their in- fluence with the Shawanese to that effect, and on the occasion of the council referred to recited to the as- sembled chiefs as follows :

" They were told that the Shawanese, who were set- tled to the Southward, being made uneasy by their Neighbours, about Sixty Families of them came up to Conestogoe, about thirty-five years since, and de- sired leave of the Sasquehannah Indians who were planted there to settle on that River ; that those Sas- quehannah Indians applied to this Government that they might accordingly Settle, and they would be- come answerable for their good Behaviour. That our late Proprietor arriving soon after, the Cliiefs of the Shawanese & of the Sasquehannahs came to Phila- delphia & renewed their Application ; that the Pro- prietor agreed to their Settlement, and the Shawanese thereupon came under the Protection of this Govern- ment; that from that time greater Numbers of the same Indians followed them and Settled on the Sas- quehannah and Delaware; that as they had joyned themselves to the Sasquehannah Indians, who were dependent on the five Nations, they thereby also fell under their Protection. That we had held several treaties with those Shawanese, and from their first coming were accounted and treated as our own Indi- ans ; but that some of their young men having, be- tween four and five years since, committed some Dis- orders, tho' we had fully made it up with them, yet, being afraid of the Six Nations, they Inid removed backwards to Ohio, and there had lately putt them- selves under the Protection of the French, who had received them as their children. That we had sent a message to them to return, & to encourage them had laid out a large Tract of Land on the West of the Sasquehannah round the principal Town where they had last been settled, and we desired by all means that they would return thither."

But the Shawanese could not be induced to return to the lands which had been laid out for them "near Pextan, which should always be kept for them and their children for all time to come." In response to a message to that eflfect, four of their chiefs, Ope- kethwa, Opakeita, Quassenungh, and Kataweykeita went from the Ohio to Philadelphia, where they ar- rived on the 28th of September, 1732,^ and after a council of three days' duration with the Governor, duringwhich heused all his powers of persuasion to in- duce them to consent to the removal, " They answered

3 Col. Rec, iii. 459.



that the place where they are now settled Suits tlicm much better than to live nearer; that they thought they did a Service to this Province in getting Skins for it in a place so far remote; that they can live much better tliere than they possibly can anywhere on Sasquehannah ; that they are pleased, however, with the Land laid out for them, and desire that it may be secured to them." On the following day at a council held with the chiefs, "They were told there were Coats making for them, and other Cloaths,' with a Present, was providing ; the Proprietor presented their Chief with a very fine gilt Gun, as a mark of respect for their Nation, and told them he would send a Surveyor to run Lines about the Land in- tended for them, and that none but themselves and Peter Chartiere should be allowed to live on it." The attempt to remove them eastward from the Ohio was relinquished, and they, with the Delawares, were found tliere when the first white men (other than a few traders) came to this region.

In 1748 the strength of the Delawares at the head of the Ohio was one hundred and sixty-five warriors; that of the Shawanese one hundred and sixty-two;'^ these figures being given by Conrad Weiser. Their chief settlement or village was Logstowu' (called by / the French Chinigue, or Chinique), which was then' located on the right bank of the Ohio, several miles below the mouth of the Allegheny, and where also was the residence of the Iroquois sachem, Tanachari- son, called the Half-King, whose authority over- shadowed that of the Delaware and Shawanese chiefs, because he represented the power of the dreaded Six Nations. The seat of the Delaware " king," however, was not at Logstown, but higher up, near the head of the Ohio, on its left bank. In the journal of Maj. George Washington's trip to the French forts on the

1 The four chiefs received " each of them a blue Cloth Coat lined witli Salloon, a Shirt, a Hatt, a pair of Stocliings, Shoes and buclcles. . . . And for a present to their Nation was ordered and delivered a piece of blue Strouds for blankets, one hundred weight of Powder, four hundred

18 Rum, and two dozen Knives. And to John ) came down with them, five pounds." Two of taken sick with smallpox and died in Phila- " buried in a handsome manner" by the orders

weight Bullets, ten gj Wray, the interpreter the chiefs, however, w delphia, where they w of the Governor.

2 Eleven years later (in 1759) George Croghan, deputy Indian agent under Sir William Johnson, in a report made to Gen. Stanwix of the numbers of the several Indian tribes in the West, gave the numbei*s of the Delawares and Shawanese (who prior to that time had removed west- ward from their first location on the Ohio) as follows:

"The Delawares residing on the Ohio, Beaver Creek, and other branches of the Ohio, and on the Susquehanna, tlieir fifilitiug men are 600." [A considerable number of the Delawares being still residing on the Susquehanna, and these not being included in Weiser's return of their strength in 1748.]

" The Shawanese on Scioto, a branch of Ohio, 400 miles below Pitts- burgh, 3U0 warriors."

a When the Indians notified the French to quit the country in 1753 they said, " We have a fire at Logstown, where are the Delawares and Shawanese." Colonial Recoyds^ v. 667.

* .\ later village also called Logstown was Ohio.

Logstown was '* the first of the Indian tov caster to Allegheny."— Cb(. Bee, viii. 289.

I the opposite side of the

Allegheny in the fall of ITiOJi he says, "About two miles from this [the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela], on the southea-st side of the river, at the place where the Ohio Company intended to erect a fort [at or very near the mouth of Chartiers Creek], lives Shingiss, king of the Delawares. We called upon him to invite him to a council at Ijogstown." This same Shingiss, who was generally styled " king," was in some of the official coinmunicationa of that day mentioned as the chief sachem of the Delawares; his brother, Pisquitomen, being also a high chief in the nation. The " king" of the Shawanese in 1753 was Nochecona.'' In 1756, King Shingiss had re- moved his residence from the mouth of Chartiers Creek to "Old Kittaning" on the Allegheny, which was alsp a town of the Delawares. Maj. Edward Ward (who when an ensign, in command of a small force engaged in the spring of 1754 in building a fort at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela, was compelled to surrender the' work to the French, who then named it Fort Du Quesne) said," "That in the year 1752, and before his surrender to the French, there was a small Village Inhabited by the Delawares on the South East side of the Allegheny River, in the neighborhood of that place [the mouth of the Alle- gheny], and that Old Kittaning, on the same side of the said River, was then Inhabited by the Delawares ; that about one-third of the Shawanese Inhabited Loggs Town on the West Side of the ()liio, and tended corn on the East Side of the River, and the other part of the nation lived on the Scioto River."

From his stronghold at Kittaning, Shingiss led his Delaware warriors against the