SQi'ETF.AorE ; Trout; AVeak-fisli ; Sta 'J"nmt: (Jray Trout; Suuimcr Trout. Cynoficion Eegulis. This species is aliundaut alon<i- the Xnrtli Cardliiia cuast, liut not in as larjie uunibei-s as the spotted trout, ami, like it, i> ]iresent almost tliroughout the vear.

Spotteii Squeteacu'e ; Speckled Trout ; Sea Trout ; Trout ; Spotted Weak-fish ; Southern Squcteague ; Black Trout ; Salmon Trout. Cynoscioii Xehulosus. This fish i> very almndant in Xorth Carolina, and from an economic

standpoint is the principal nicmlier of the drum family.

Yellow-tail; Perch; Silver Perch; Wliite Perch; Yellow-finned Perch; Sand Pendi. BdirdieJla C'li ri/siini. The yellow-tail ahounds in the Xorth ('ar(jlina sounds, estuaries and salt waters generally from early spring to late fall. Although a small fish, it makes an excellent pun fish, com]iaralile with the spot, and could he made of some consideralile econ(iniic value.

Spot. Leiostamiis X<uif hunts.

The spot is very ahundant in the sounds and other coastal waters of Xorth Carolina, and in certain seasons enters perfectly fresh waters. Xorth Carolina s]iots find a ready market in Baltimore, Washington and other cities.

Croaker; Crocus; Hard-head. Micropognn I'ndiilatiis.

This is another one of the common food fishes of the Xorth Caro- lina coast, being found in nearly ;dl the sounds, estuaries and inlets and on the outer shores. The croaker is caught along the entire coast and has become one of the very salable species.

Dkcm; Red Drum : Red-fish; S]iottcd Bass; Channel Bass. Sclaeiiops Ocellatiis. The red drum is one of the larger and more valuable of the food fishes, but as a fishery it has not l>een developed to as great an extent as it should be. This fishery is most extensive in Carteret County, but the fish are also caught in the Cape Fear region and 'about Boau- oke Island.



Fisheries of Xorth Carolina


Sea Mullet; King-fish; Carolina Whiting; Eouiid-liead ; Whiting;

Sea-mink. Menticirrhus Americanus.

This fish is abundant about Roanoke Island, Pamlico Sound,

around Cape Lookout, Beaufort harbor, and Cape Fear. This fish

is of exceptionally good quality, and at times commands a fancy price.

KiXG-FiSH ; Sea Mullet; Sea-mink; Whiting. Menticirrhus Saxa- tilis. This species is usually not distinguished by the Xorth Carolina fishermen from the preceding sj^ecies, Menticirrhus Americanus. This fish is especially esteemed in Xew York and Xew Jersey markets. It is probable that if the king-fish were separated from the sea mullet or Carolina whiting, it would bring a better and more constant price.

Sure Wiiitixg ; Sea Mullet; Whiting; Silver Whiting. Menticir- rhus Littoralis. This whiting is rather common lat Beaufort during the summer, and is marketed with the two preceding species.

Black Druji ; Sea Drum. Pogonias Cromis.

The black drum is less abundant than the red drum in Xorth Caro- lina, and nowhere near as valuable as a food fish. It is very seldom shipped, and the princiiial use of it as a foo<l fish is made locally by some of the fishermen.

Taittog ; Oyster-fish. Tautoga Onitis.

This fish is not very abundant in Xorth Carolina, and while it does not support a special fishery, it is some years caught in consider- able numl>ers, especially in the waters of Beaufort harbor.

PoRGEE ; Spade-fish ; Moon-fish. Chaetodipterus Faher.

This species is found on the Xorth Carolina coast only in summer. Its flesh is of excellent quality, and there is considerable demand for it in the Xew York and Washington markets. The bulk of the catch lias come from Craven. Pare, and Pamlico counties. 4




Digitized by tine Internet Arciiive

in 2009 witii funding from

University of Toronto



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society

VOLUME xxxir 1916-1917



jL^q /^7

Edwabds & Beoughton Peintino Compant





Memorial Sketch of Dr. Joseph Austin Holmes. Joseph

Hyde Pratt 1

Joseph Austin Holmes. F. P. Venable 16

Dr. Joseph Austin Holmes at the University of North

Carolina. K. P. Battle 20

On Leidy's Ouramoeba and its Occurrence at Greensboro.

E. W. Gudger 24

Notes on the Herpetology of North Carolina. K. P.

Schmidt 33

The Laurel Oak or Darlington Oak (Quercus laurifolm

Michx.). W. 0. Coher 38

Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Acad- emy OF Science 41

The Critical Dyestuff Situation. A. 8. Wheeler 53

The Shrubs and Vines of Chapel Hill. W. C. Coher and

H. R. Totten 66

A Glance at the Zoology of Today. H. V. Wilson 83

A List of the Syrphidae of North Carolina. C. L. Metcalf. 95 On the Occurrence and Distribution of Potassium in Nor- mal AND Nephropathic Kidney Cells. Wm . deB. Mac-

Nider _ J13

Professor Cain's Contributions to the Scientific Study OF Earth Pressure: a Pioneer Work. Archibald Hen- derson i-^^

A Correction. Ed. R. Memminger 120

Proceedings of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society,

December, 1912, to December, 1916 121

The Nature op the Individual in the Animal Kingdom.

E. V. Wilson 225

Some Elementary Vector Equations. /. W. Lasley... 143

The Fisheries of North Carolina. J. H. Pratt 149

Some Known Changes in the Land Vertebrate Fauna of

North Carolina. C. 8. Brimley 17g


Joseph Avstin Holmes.



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society

Volume XXXII APRIL, 1916 Number 1


The life of Dr. Joseph Austin Hohnes was 'devoted to the develop- ment and welfare of his country, and in his death the people of the United States have lost one of their most efficient and valuable public servants. He was a man who jnit duty first, and in carrying out this ideal he gave his life in an endeavor to improve the condition and safety of the miners. He did not know the word "failure" ; and, where other men would have failed, he has been able to accomplish the results desired. It is granted to but few men to be able in the few years of their life's activity to do that which will leave a permanent influence and impress upon an industry ; but to Dr. Holme^^, whose life we are now commemorating, this distinction was allotted.

Due almost entirely to his energy and efforts, there has been cre- ated throughout this country an organized movement looking to the preservation of human life; and, altbdngh his first \v<irk was directed toward the prevention of mine accidents, and to the safety and wel- fare of the hundreds of thousands of men who daily risk their lives in the production of fuel so necessary to the Nation's industry and ccmi- mcrce, it developed the "safety first" idea that has spread to nearly every industry and into all walks of life. These words are almost synonymous with the word "Holmes," and wherever we see "safety first" we are reminded of the wonderful achievements of this man. He has not only left his impress upon an industry, but has also created an organization which will live as long as our Government exists and is a monument to the tireless energy, public-spiritedness and unselfish- ness of the man who is responsible for its creation. I refer to the

* Read at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America. Washington, D. C, December 28, 1915.

2 Journal of the Mitchell Society [April

Bureau of Mines, whose fouudation he laid by many feats of exacting labor and fruitful work, and who, by masterful generalship and argu- ments, as he only could use, carried the bill to establish the Bureau of Mines successfully through an nnsjTnpathetic Congi-ess.

To Dr. Charles D. Walcott, former Director of the United States Geological Survey and now Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, must be given the credit of recognizing those qualities of character and ability in Mr. Holmes which he realized were necessary in a man who could not only lay the foundation and build up an organization that would lead to a Bureau of Mines, but who would also be able to direct it after its creation. In a recent communication from Di-. Walcott, he wrote:

"About 1900 it became more and more evident that he (Dr. Holmes) was a man of broad conceptions and fitted to undertake work of national scope, and it was with great pleasure that I learned in 1904 that he was willing to give all of his time and energy to the development of the Section of Mines and Mining in the Federal Survey. I told him that as soon as the work was suf- ficiently well organized it would be made a Division of the Survey and un-" doubtedly lead to the creation of a Bureau of Mines and Mining. He entered Into the work with a zeal and intelligence that was not fully understood by his immediate associates, but the work steadily grew, and in 1910 he was ap- pointed Director of the Bureau of Mines."

His appointment, however, was not attained without very severe opposition from a Secretary who was hostile to Dr. Holmes, and it is rumored that this important position was offered to several other men ; but, to the credit of the men of science of this country, it can be said that they all refused to accept what all knew rightfully belonged to another. Those who knew Dr. Holmes, having confidence in his abil- ity and believing that he was the logical head for the new bureau, were persistent in their demand that he should receive the appoint- ment. It is not generally known how near the bureau came to losing Dr. Holmes as its director, and how near the University of West Virginia came to securing him as its president; and, as an incident bearing on this is illustrative of the loyalty of Dr. Holmes' friends, I wish to quote in part a few lines from a letter I recently received from Dr. I. C. White, State Geologist of West Virginia :

"It -was during this discouraging period of his life, just before the appoint- ment of a Director of the Bureau of Mines, when he had given up all hope of

1916] Joseph Austin Holites: 3Iemoeiai. Sketch 3

receiving the appointment, that he came up from Pittsburg to spend the week-end at the -svriter's home in ilorgantown, W. Va. He was weary and care-worn from the long and disappointing vigil, but gentle and loving as ever. No word of reproach or bitterness escaped his lips. If he could not serve his country in an edifice his own hands had so largely constructed, he was ready to give his services to a State that had stood by him in his long battle, and where he knew he would be among appreciative friends. The State Uni- versity of West Virginia was seeking a president, and one of the purposes of Dr. Holmes' visit to my home was to acquaint the writer, who had ever been his trusted friend, with the fact that he had despaired of being appointed Director of the Vnited States Bureau of Mines, and would accept the presi- dency of the University of West Virginia if the Regents of the same would make the tender."

Fortunately for the industry, Dr. ^Vliite and others, realizing that for the success of the Bureau of Mines it was necessary that Dr. Holmes should be its head, decided out of genuine loyalty to him and appreciation of his work, that they would not j^lace his name for action before the Regents of the Univei*sity until President Taft had actually bestowed the Directorship of the Bureau of Mines upon some one else. His friends' belief in what President Taft would finally do was confirmed a few days later when the appointment of Dr. Holmes was announced from the White House.

That he was a wise selection is evidenced by the wonderful develop- ment of the Bureau under his administration. The work he had planned as Chief of the Technologic Branch of the U. S. Geological Survey developed rapidly, aided by Congress, which widened the scope and enlarged the purposes of the bureau. The principal investi- gations taken up under Dr. Holmes' directorship and the results accomplished are as follows :

An investigation in regard to the improper use of explosives and the use of improper explosives.

Investigation in regard to better lights for mines. Result, the establishment of a permissible list of portable electric lamps for use in dangerous mines.

In developing rescue work, Dr. Holmes introduced into this country the so-called "oxygen breathing apparatus." Result, such apparatus is now not only widely used in mine-rescue work, but is being adopted by manufacturing plants and by city fire departments. There are today six mine-rescue stations, eight mine-rescue cars, and one rescue

4 Journal ok thk Mitchell Society [April

motor truck operated by the Bureau of Mines. There are seventy-six iniue-rescue stations that have been established by mining companies, at which there are 1,200 sets of artificial breathing apparatus in addition to the auxiliary equipment for first-aid and fire-fighting work. There are also twelve mine-rescue cars being operated by mining com- panies.

Investigations into the causes of disasters and the recommendations made by the Bureau have resulted in an ever-decreasing death rate.

The investigation of coal dust and explosions therefrom was one of the most important lines of investigation that Dr. Holmes took up. The result today is that the entire mining industry, including opera- tors and miners, is convinced that coal dust will explode, and recognize the danger from it; and mine operators and State ofiicials are follow- ing the recommendations of the Bureau to prevent dust explosions.

Investigations have been conducted regarding smelter smoke wastes and wastes in the treatment of rare minerals and metals. Dr. Holmes emphasized the need of such investigations, indicating that there was at least $1,000,000 a day being wasted or lost by the present methods of mining and utilization of our mineral resources.

Investigations regarding the extraction of radium from its ores have resulted in the development of a j^rocess through which it will be possible to greatly reduce the cost of radium compounds to the con- sumer. "The process is to be patented and dedicated to the public."*

Investigations have been started to reduce the great loss of $75,- 000,000 annually, due to coking coal in beehive ovens. As a result already some of this loss has been reduced through the use of by- product ovens and the utilization of the by-products obtained.

Dr. Holmes called attention to the annual waste of over $4,500,000 in brass furnace practice and then had prepared a report showing how, by practicable means, this waste can be largely prevented.

These are some of the investigations Dr. Holmes had the Bureau of Mines take up, and they illustrate the wide scope of the work he was planning for the Bureau to undertake. Its development into one of the most important of all the Federal bureaus has been phe- nomenal and is due not only to the indefatisable work of the Direc-

•Van H. Mannine, Jour. Ind. and Eng. Chcm., Vol. 7, No. 8. page 716. Aug., 1915

1916] Joseph Austin Holmes: Memoeial Sketch 5

tor, but to the fact that he was a splendid judge of men and their capacity for work, and was able to surround himself with the type of men who were able to carry out the plans his master-mind had con- ceived ; and these men were loyal and true to him.

He was thoughtful and considerate of his associates ; and while he may have demanded much of them, he always gave them full credit for work done ; and of the reports of the investigations carried out by the Bureau but very few bear his name as author. Credit is given to him who carried on the investigation. Dr. Holmes planned the character of the investigation, then put it up to one of his associates to do the detail woi'k. What he wanted was results. He had little time to write for publication or to think about personal advancement, and he left it to his associates to do the writing and give him the re- sults— and results he surely obtained.

Although Dr. Holmes was the author of but comparatively few publications, yet he was personally responsible for the publication of many important scientific and economic papers, because he had the foresight to open up new fields of investigation and secure properly trained men to carry on the work he outlined. I doubt if there has ever been a man who surpassed him iu this respect.

This faculty of Dr. Holmes' showed itself soon after he became State Geologist of Xorth Carolina in 1891. In this position he had wide latitude for planning a varied line of investigations relating to many subjects, inasmuch as the object of the State Survey was the investigation of all natural resources of the State. Almost as soon as he was appointed State Geologist he began to plan new lines of work and to call in to assist him men who were fully qualified to carry on the investigation he desired. Thus you find associated with him during the first years of his directorship of the State Survey such men as Professor George Williams of Johns Hopkins, Professor S. L. Pen- field of Tale, Dr. George F. Kunz of Xew York, Professor F. P. Yen- able of the University of Xorth Carolina, Dr.. George P. llerrill of the Xational Museum at Washington, Professor George Swain of the ilassachusetts School of Technology, Professor Thomas L. Y^atson of the University of Yirginia, Professor H. Y. Wilson of the University of Xorth Carolina, Professor Y^ilKam Cain of the Universitv of Xorth


Carolina, Mr. H. B. C. Nitze, Mr. Gifford Pinchot of Washington, Professor Heinrich Ries of Cornell, and others. The published reports of the State Sun-ey, similarly as those of the Bureau of Mines, seldom bear the name of Holmes as one of the authors.

Dr. Holmes did a great deal to broaden the scope of the State Geo- logical Surveys, and to demonstrate that there could be and should be a close cooperation between the State and Federal Surveys. There was always most friendly cooperation between the Xorth Carolina Survey and the Federal Survey ; and, although the State received very largely from the Federal Survey, it gave veiy largely in return, for Dr. Holmes was always ready to give his time and energy to any work which promised to be of service to the Federal Survey ; and he was often called in consultation regarding the work of that Survey. Dr. Walcott, who was then Director, states that he was early impressed with Dr. Holmes' thoroughness and the quality of his work as State Geologist. In the Geological Survey his most important work was probably the application of geology to the industrial development of the country. He started this in the State Survey, but later introduced it into the Federal Survey.

As State Geologist he became very much interested in the preserva- tion of the forests of the Southern Apj^alachian region, and it is due largely to his work as State Geologist that the Weeks bill was i>assed by Congi-ess, which has resulted in the purchase of forest areas to be used for forest reservations in the Southern AppalachiaTi region and the White Moimtain region. It was under the supervision of Dr. Holmes that the mass of evidence was collected which proved to the congressional committees that it was absolutely necessary for Con- gress to take some action to prevent the destruction of the forests of these two areas in order to protect the flow of navigable sti"eams.

In connection with an investigation relating to our turpentine in- dustry, he had experimental work carried on in regard to the cup and gutter method, which is now in general use in this industry. He also had investigations made as to the practicability of the reproduction of the long-leaf pine, and an actual demonstration in planting of seed proved the feasibility of such reproduction.

191G] Joseph Austin Holmes: Memorial Sketch 7

Dr. Holmes also started the "good roads" movement in North Caro- lina, and one of tho first publications of the State Survey was a report on "iload Materials and Road Construction in North Carolina." While his work in connection with the roads was almost entirely from the educational standpoint, yet it was this work that made it possible for his successor to obtain through the North Carolina General As- sembly the creation of, first, a Highway Division of the Survey and, later, a State Highway Commission.

In the State work Dr. Holmes also began investigations in relation to the waterpowers, mineral waters, undergTound water supplies, tim- ber resources, mineral resources and fisheries of the State ; but a lim- ited treasury and lack of time prevented him from carrying these out as rapidly as he desired, and it was left to his successor to complete some of them.

During his term of office as State Geologist, 1891 to 1905, the Sur- vey published twenty Bulletins and Economic Papers, giving the re- sults of investigations that he had started. In 1905 the act creating the Survey was repealed and a new act, which was prepared by Dr. Holmes, was passed by the General Assembly. This created the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey.

Dr. Holmes brought geology to this people and made them realize its value and application in the arts.

In connection with the investigation of the Fisheries of the State, Dr. Holmes was the leading spirit in the establishment of the Biologi- cal Laboratory at Beaufort. In June, 1897, after consultation with Dr. Holmes and Professor H. V. Wilson of the University of North Carolina, the United States Commissioner of Fisheries established at Beaufort, North Carolina, a temporary station for the investigation of the marine fauna and flora of the Southern coast. Professor Wil- son was appointed director, and for the next three years he and Dr. Holmes devoted much time and thought to its development. Congress finally made an appropriation for the establishment of a pennanent laboratory, but made no appropriation for the purchase of a site. Dr. Holmes recommended a site and arranged for its private purchase and its donation to the Government. He, with Professor Wilson, drew up the outline plans for the laboratory buildings and he remained in


oloso touch with the work of the laboratory until his resignation as State Geologist. This work of Dr. Holmes had an important l^aring on the Fisheries of the State of North Carolina, as it started the inter- est of the people of the State in the value of the fisheries and finally resulted, some years after the resignation of Dr. Holmes as State Geologist, in the creation of the Fisheries Commission of the State of North Carolina.

Dr. Holmes' \vork as State Geologist brought him prominently before the public, and in 1903 he was chosen Director of the Depart- ment of Mines and Metallurgy at the St. Louis World's Fair. He accepted this appointment and had charge of and organized that de- partment. He planned the exhibits and introduced new features for the exhibits which have since been adopted by all succeeding expo- sitions. These new features made the Mines Building of the St. Louis Exposition the most successful and instructive Mining Exhibit that was ever made at any exposition. For special services rendered at this exposition he was decorated by several foreign governments. In connection with the Mining Exhibit he suggested that an investigation he made of the fuels of the United States and was successful in per- suading CongTess to authorize the investigation and make the neces- sary appropriation with which to carry on the work. Dr. Holmes and, at his suggestion, two representatives of the U. S. Geological Survey were created a committee to carry on the investigations which were made during the years 1904 and 1905. Although Director of the Department of Mines at St. Louis, Dr. Holmes continued to have gen- eral supervision of the work of the North Carolina Geological Survey. Early in 1905 the Director of the L^. S. Geological Survey appointed Dr. Holmes to take individual charge of the Fuel Investigations, and soon after he was appointed Chief of the Division of Technology of the Federal Survey, and then severed his connection with the State Geological Survey.

While connected with the Federal Suiwey, Dr. Holmes examined Mine Experiment Stations and Mine-rescue Stations in Great Britain, Belgium, France, and Germany, and it was the result of these studies that led to the inaugiiration of the movement for mine-rescue work in this country.

191G] Joseph Austin Holmes: Memorial Sketch 9

In 1907 President Roosevelt, on Dr. Holmes' recommendation, se- cured the appointment by the governments of Great Britain, Germany, and Belgium of one exjjert engineer from each of these countries to visit the United States and then visit with Dr. Holmes the more im- portant coal fields of this country. This was done in order to de- termine to what extent the safety practices used in other mining coun- tries might be introduced into the United States. It was on the basis of the findings of these engineers that Dr. Holmes developed and or- ganized his investigations relating to mine explosions, etc.

In 1908, when President Roosevelt took up the question of the con- servation of our natural resources. Dr. Holmes was appointed a mem- ber of the National Conservation Commission, and he had charge of the inventory of the Xation's mineral resources.

In all Dr. Holmes' work his central thought had always been the development of the mining industry and the improvement of con- ditions affecting the miner. In carrying out this great purpose he thought only of the object to be attained and paid little or no heed to personal attacks or opposition such as inevitably accomjjanies a for- ward movement or investigation that requires the cooperation of both the legislative and administrative departments of our Government. When, however, an attack was made on him that appeared to endanger the work itself in which he was engaged, he was then ready to put forth all his eiforts to meet and defeat the opposition.

Dr. Holmes was human, as the rest of us, and occasionally was for- getful in regard to certain things that were to be done. This charac- teristic of his sometimes led to severe criticism of his work by those who were not thoroughly acquainted with him. "Whenever any ap- parent neglect on his part was called to his attention the matter was instantly taken care of and ample apologj' made for the oversight. Dr. Holmes was excessively careful to observe all the little courtesies of life and was a splendid representative of the Southern Christian gen- tleman.

Dr. Holmes was Iwrn at Laurens, S. C, November 23, 1859, and died at Denver, Col., July, 191.5, after nearly a year's illness and fight against tuberculosis. His illness was undoubtedly brought on by severe exposure in connection with the examination of mines for ex-

10 Journal of the Mitchell Society [April

plosions and of hardships endured in investigations regarding mining eouditions in Alaska. His pai-ents were Z. L. and Catherine (Nickles) Holmes.

His early education was in the schools of South Carolina, but his university work was at Cornell, where he gTaduated in 1881, taking the degi'ee of B.S. Later he received the degree of D.Sc. from the University of Pittsburg, and in 1909 the degree of LL.D. from the University of ISTorth Carolina. During his college course Dr. Holmes devoted especial attention to chemistry (including the chemistry of explosives), to metallurgy, geology, general physics, and mining. He visited mining regions and metallurgical plants in many parts of the United States, Germany, France, Great Britain, and Belgium.

In the fall of 1881 he became Professor of Geology and Natural History in the University of JSTorth Carolina, and held this position until 1891, when he became State Geologist.

On October 20, 18S7, Dr. Holmes married Miss Jeannie I. Sprunt, of Wilmington, 'N. C.

Dr. Holmes was a fellow and charter member of the Geological Society of America, fellow of the American Association for the Ad- vancement of Science ; member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, American Society for Testing Materials, and American Society of Mechanical Engineers ; he was appointed a member of the Mining Legislation Committee of Illinois ; one of the founders of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society ; member of the Sigma Xi Scientific Society; member of the Washington Academy of Science, St. Louis Academy of Science and the North Carolina Academy of Science; member of the Cosmos Club of Washington, and the Engineers' Club of jSTew York.

In closing this sketch, let me further express my feelings and thought regarding Dr. Holmes in the words of several friends who were very close to him :

"Dr. Holmes stands as one of the finest examples of unselfish devotion to the cause which he championed, even to the extent of giving his life for it. Mining in America in its national aspect is more deeply indebted to him on its scientific, operating and industrial sides than to any one other individual. It seems most unfortunate that Dr. Holmes did not live to aid the movement to improve the laws affecting mines and mining; but, with the Bureau of

1910\ Joseph Austin Holmes: Memorial Sketch 11

Mines firmly established, and cooperating with the thoughtful mining engi- neers and operators throughout the country, the results he hoped to see should be speedily obtained." Charles D. Walcott.

"Ever thoughtful, resourceful, a great organizer, a clear, logical and elo- quent speaker, a splendid judge of men and their capacity to do the work his master-mind had planned, the U. S. Bureau of Mines, founded only in 1910, has, under his leadership, rapidly grown to be one of the most important of all Government agencies. * * * His monument is the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and his memory will be cherished forever in the hearts of countless miners whose lives he has rendered safer in the perilous occupation they follow, and without the product of whose busy hands our present civilization could not exist. Although cut down in but little beyond the prime of life, he has left us an example of what glorious achievements indomitable will and untiring work can accomplish. The great Bureau he so largely created and so suc- cessfully directed will continue its brilliant work along the path he so skill- fully blazed, since, thanks to a very able and conscientious Secretary of the Interior, his successor is in thorough accord with the high ideals of the former Chief, and was ever his efficient helper.'' I. C. White.

"In the death of Dr. Holmes the people of the United States lose one of their most remarkable and eflScient public servants. And the saddest part of it all is that Dr. Holmes is a victim of overwork, a too great devotion to the duties which had been assigned to him in behalf of the safety of the million miners in the United States. He was one of the most enthusiastic, inde- fatigable workers I ever had the pleasure of associating with. His mind was continually upon the yearly death toll of the miners, and although taken away in the prime of his life, he has already accomplished much in reducing the terrible death rate. In the last five years of his life he saw a slowly but steadily decreasing death rate, and while it gave him much joy, it only added to his almost superhuman efforts in behalf of the men." Tan H. Manning.

A full list of Dr. Holmes' reports and more iniportaut scientific papers is given in his Bibliography appended to this sketch. Chapel Hill, N. C.


1. Ageicultubal Education in Xorth Carolina. Misc. spec. rp. 2, U. S. Dept.

Agric, 1883, pp. 84-87.

2. Notes on the Tornado Which Occurred in Richmond County, N. C, Feb-

ruary 19, 1884. Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. I, 1884, pp. 28-34.

3. Notes on the Indian Burial Mounds of Eastern North Carolina. Jour.

Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. I, 1884, pp. 73-79.


Carolina. Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. I, 1884, pp. 86-87.

12 Journal of the Mitchell Society [April

5. Notes on a Petrified Human Body. Jour. Elisha Hitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. II,

1885, pp. 59-60. (With Dr. T. W. Harris.)

6. Taxodicm (Cypress) ix North Carolina. .lour. Elislia Mitch. Sci. Soc.,

Vol. II, 1885, pp. 92-93.


Survey, 1886, 3 pp.

8. A Sketch of Professor Washington Caruthers Kerr, M.A., Ph.D. Jour.

Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. IV^ Pt. 2, 1887, pp. 1-24.


Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc., Vol. V, 1888, pp. 31-41.

10. Study of Plants in the Garden and Field. The N. C. Teacher, 1888, 6 pp.

11. Historical Notes Ccincerxixg the North Carolina Geological Surveys.

Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. VI, 1889, pp. 5-18.

12. The Conglomerate and Pebble Beds of the Triassic and Potomac Forma-

tions OF North Carolina. Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. VI, 1889, p. 148.

13. Mineralogical, Geologicai, and Agricultural Surveys of South Carolina.

Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. VII, 1890, pp. 89-117.

14. Hoover Hill Gold Mine in North Carolina. Eng. and Min. Jour., Vol.

LIV, p. 520.

15. Character and Distribution of Road Materials. Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci.

Soc, Vol. IX, Pt. 2, 1892, pp. 66-81.

16. Road Material and Ro.^^d Construction in North Carolina. ("With Wil-

liam C. Cain.) Bull. 4, N. C. (Jeol. Survey, 1893, 88 pp.

17. Geology of the Sandhill Country of the Carolinas. Bull. Geol. Soc.

Am., Vol. V, 1893, pp. 33-34.

18. Economic Geology or North Carolin.\. Southern States, Vol. I, 1893,

pp. 153-161.

19. Improvement of Roads in North Carolina. Yearbook, 1894, U. S. Dept.

Agric, 1895, pp. 513-520.

20. Notes on the Kaolin and Ci^\y Deposits of North Carolina. Trans. Am.

Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. XXV, 1895, pp. 929-936, and Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. XII, Pt. 2, 1895, pp. 1-10.

21. Notes on the Underground Supplies of Potable Waters in the South

Atlantic Piedmont Plateau. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. XXV, pp. 936-943; and Jour. Elisha Mitch. Sci. Soc, Vol. XII, Pt. 1, 1895, pp. 31-41.

22. Corundum Deposits of the Southern Appalachian Region. Seventeenth

Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Pt. 3, 1896, pp. 935-943.

23. Gold in the Carolinas. Gold Fields Along the Southern Railway, pub-

lished by the Southern Railway, 1897, pp. 8-19.

24. Mica Deposits of the United States. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am.. Vol. X, 1898,

pp. 501-503.

25. North Carolina Mineral Industry in 1898. Eng. and Min. Jour., Vol.

LXVII, 1899, pp. 50-51.

26. Mica Deposits in the United States. U. S. Geol. Survey. Ann. Rept. XX,

1899, pp. 691-707.

1910] Bibliography 13

27. Waterpower in North Carolina. (With Geo. F. Swain and E. W. Myers.)

Bull. 8, N. C. Geol. Survey, 1899, 362 pp.

28. Some Recext Road Legislation in North Carolina. Economic Paper

No. 2, N. C. Geol. Survey, 1899, 24 pp.

29. The Db^ep Well at Wilmington. North Carolina. Jour. Elisha Mitch.

Sei. Soc, Vol. XVI, Ft. 2, 1899, pp. 67-70; Science, N. S., XI, 1900, p. 128.

30. Mica Indu.strt in North Carolina in 1900. U. S. Geol. Survey, Min. Res.,

1900, pp. 853-954.

31. The Cretaceois and Tertiary Section Between Cape Fear and Fayette-

viLLE, North Carolina. Science, N. S., Vol. XI, 1900, p. 143.

32. Recent Road Legislatio.x in North Carolina. N. C. Geol. Survey, Eco-

nomic Paper No. 5, 1901, 47 pp.

33. Proceedings of the North Carolina Good Roads Convention. U. S. Dept.

Agric, Office of Public Road Inquiries. Bull. No. 24, 1903, 72 pp.

34. Road Building in North Cakolina. U. S. Dept. Agric, Office of Public

Road Inquiries. Bull. No. 24, 1903, pp. 65-71. 35-41. Biennial Reports of the North Carolina Geological Survey. 1891-'92; 1893-"94; 1895-'96; 1897-"98; 1899-1900; 1901-'O2; 1903-'04.

42. The Collection of Mineral Statistics in the United States of America.

Cong. int. d'expansion econ. mondiale, Mons, 1905, sec. 2, Statis. int. Bruxelles, 2 pp.

43. Fuel Inve.stigations. Geological Survey: Progress During Year Ending

June 30, 1909. Proc Amer. Soc. Test. Materials, Vol. IX, 1909, pp. 619- 625.

44. Inspection of Mines. Rp. of Proc Amer. Min. Cong., 12th ann. sess.,

Goldfield, Nev., Sept. 27-Oct. 2, 1909, pp. 236-238.

45. Preliminary Report of Committee on Standard Specifications for Coal.

Proc. Amer. Soc. Test. Materials, Vol. IX, 1909, pp. 277-279.

46. A Rational Basis for the Conservation of Mineral Resources. Bull. 29,

Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., May, 1909, pp. 469-476.

47. Coal Mine Accidents and Their Prevention. National Civic Federation,

Circular, New York, Nov. 23, 1909, 4 pp.

48. The Bureau of MiNts and Its Work. Rp. of Proc Amer. Min. Cong., 13th

ann. meeting, Los Angeles, Cal., Sept. 26-Oct. 1, 1910, pp. 219-227. 49-53. Annual Report, U. S. of Mines. 1911-1915, 5 Vols.

54. The Sampling of Coal in the Mine. Tech. Paper 1. U. S. Bureau of

Mines, 1911, 18 pp.

55. The Mining Industry. Rp. of Proc. Amer. Min. Cong.. 14th ann. meeting.

Chicago, 111., Oct. 24-28, 1911, pp. 69-71.

56. Diseases and Accidents of Miners and Tunnel Workers in the United

States. Reprint fr. Trans. 15th Int. Cong, on Hygiene and Demography, Sept. 23-28, 1912, 13 pp.

57. Saving Miners' Lives. Proc 4th Nat. Conservation Cong., Indianapolis,

Oct. 1-4, 1912, pp. 200-205.

58. The National Phases of the Mining Industry. 8th Int. Cong. Applied

Chem., Vol. XXVI, 1912, pp. 733-750.


59. Speech Concerning Work of the Bibeatj of Mines. Rp. of Proc. Amer.

Mill. Cong., 17th ann. meeting, Phoenix, Ariz., Dec. 7-11, 1914, pp. 95-96.

60. Parker, E. W., Holmes, J. A., and Campbell, M. R. Preliminary Report

ON Operations of Coal-Testing Plant of United States Geological ScRVEY AT Louisiana Pltschase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904. Bull. 263, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1905, 172 pp.

61. Report on Operations of Coal-Testing Plant of United States Geologi-

cal Sltrvey at Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, Mo., 1904. Prof. Paper 48, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, 3 Vols.

62. United States Geological Survey. Preliminary- Report on Operations

OF Fuel-Testing Plant of United States Geological Su-rvey at St. Louis, Mo., 1905; J. A. Holmes in Ch.4^rge; Introduction and Chapter ON "Briquetting Tests" by J. A. Holmes. Bull. 290, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, 240 pp.

63. With Gilbert, G. K., and Others. The San Francisco Earthquake and

Fire of April 18, 1906, and Their Effects on Structures and Struc- tur.\l il\terials. reports by g. k. gilbert, r. l. humphreys, j. s. Sewell, and Frank Solt.£, With a Preface by J. A. Holmes. Bull. 324, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1907, 170 pp.

64. With Hall, Cl^vrence, .\nd Sneujng, W. O. Coal-Mine Accidents: Their

Causes and Prevention; a Preuminary Statistical Report, With an Introduction by J. A. Holmes. Bull. 333, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1907, 21 pp.

65. With Moldenke, R. G. G., Belden, A. W., and Delamater, G. R. Washing

and Coking Tests of Coal and Cltola Tests of Coke Conducted by United States Fuel-Testing P>lant at St. Louis, Mo., January 1, 1905, to June 30. 1907, With Introduction by J. A. Holmes. Bull. 336, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1908, 76 pp.

66. With Humphrey, R. L. Organization, Equipment, and Operation of the

Structural-Materials Testing Laboratories at St. Louis, Mo., With a Preface by J. A. Holmes. Bull. 329, U. S. Geol. Surv., 1908, 84 pp.

67. U. S. Geological Survey. Report of United States Fuel-Testing Plant

at St. Louis, Mo., January 1, 1906, to June 30, 1907; J. A. Holmes in Charge; Introduction by J. A. Holmes. Bull. 332, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1908, 299 pp.

68. With Griffith, William, and Conner, E. T. Mining Conditions Under

the City of Scranton, Pa., Report and Maps, AVith a Preface by J. A. Holmes and a Chapter by N. H. D.\rton. Bull. 25, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1912, 89 pp.

69. United States Congress, House of Representatives: Committee on

Mines and Mining. Hearings Before Com.mittee, January 11, 1912; Contains Statement of J. A. Holmes, Director of Bureau of Mines, on Existing Law and New Bill Proposed to Meet Claims of Western Mining Men. Wash., D. C, Gov't Print'g Off., 1912, 48 pp.

70. Hearing Before Committee, 62d Cong., 2d Sess., on H. R. 17260, An

Act to Amend an Act Entitled "An Act to Establish in Department OF Interior a Bure.\u of Mines," Approved May 16, 1910, June 12, 1912; Contains Statement of J. A. Holmes, Director of Blueau of Mines. Wash., D. C, Gov't Print'g Off., 1912, pp. 4-16.

1916] Bibliography 15

71. With Lord, N. W. Analyses of Coals in United States, With Descrip-

tions OF Mine and Field Samples Collected Between July 1, 1904, and June 30, 1910, With Chapters by J. A. Holmes, F. M. Stanton, A. C. Fieldner, and Samuel Sanford. Bull. 22, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1913, 2 Vols., text and plates.

72. Rutledge, J. J. The Use and Misuse of Explosives in Coal Mining,

With a Preface by J. A. Holmes. Miners' circ. 7, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1913, 53 pp.

73. United States Congress, House of Representatives: Committee on

Mines and Mining. Hearing (on H. R. 6063, Appropriation for Mining Schools) 63d Cong., 2d Sess., December 4, 1913; Contains State- ment of J. A. Holmes, Director of Bureau of Mines. Wash., D. C, Gov't Print'g Off., 1913, 19 pp.

74. Committee on Public Lands. Hearing on Bill H. R. 13137, to Provide

for Leasing of Coal Lands in Territory of Alaska, and for Other Purposes, February 23 to 26, 1914; Contains Statements of J. A. Holmes, Director of Bureau of Mines, With an Abstract of All Bills on Opening of Coal Lands in Alaska. Wash., D. C, Gov't Print'g Off., 1914, Pt. 2, 267 pp.

75. United States Navy Department. Report on Coal in Alaska for Use in

United States Navy; Report of Survey and Investigation by Experi- mental Tests of Coal in Alaska, etc. Contains General Statement BY J. A. Holmes, Director of Bureau of Mines. House doc. 876, 63d Cong., 2d Sess., 1914, 123 pp.


By F. p. Venable

It is with some shrinking that I nudcrtake this sketch of him who for thirty-five years was one of my closest, most intimate friends. It is not easy to hiy bare the thoughts or feelings of such a friendship or to dissect and analyze the work and character of one who was so near and who shared the joys and trials, the hopes and disappointments of almost a lifetime. T shall attempt little of such analysis, and content myself, in the main, with a brief outline of the life as it touched my own.

Joseph Austin Holmes entered the service of the University in 1881, a few months after graduation from Cornell ; very much as I had been summoned a year before, differing somewhat, though, as my work at Bonn was incomplete, and 1 had to go back